Posts Tagged With: Love

Submission and Authority Part I

This particular series began as answers to emails, so if they read a little odd, that’s why. (: 

Ezer Kenegdo and Submission (1 Peter 3:1)

How do we reconcile the role of the ezer kenegdo as a helper 
that opposes with 1 Peter 3:1?

“Wives, likewise, be submissive to your own husbands, that even if some do not obey the word, they, without a word, may be won by the conduct of their wives.”

man_vs_womanOne of the points of proper Biblical hermeneutics is called “The Synthesis Principle.” This method explains that the best interpreter of scripture is scripture itself. A passage must be examined in relation to its immediate context (the verses surrounding it), its wider context (the book it’s found in), and its complete context (the whole Bible). The Bible does not contradict itself. In other words, good Bible interpretation relates any one passage to the total content of scripture. This careful process ensures that one has the “whole story.” This lessens the possibility of someone taking a verse or verses out of context to make them fit into a biased paradigm or a preconceived doctrinal framework.

Does submission mean never questioning and always agreeing or going along with another person or authority? Or does submission mean having a heart that is willing to yield to another person out of love and respect? Which type of submission does the Bible teach?

The context for the verses in chapter 3 begins back in chapter 2. This is why Peter begins with the Greek adverb homoios, which means, “likewise/similarly/so”. He’s making a comparison. The second part of chapter 2 deals with general submissiveness to an authority. The character of those that follow the true G-d of Israel should be marked by good behavior or “well-doing” (1 Pet. 2:15). Peter’s discourse on this begins with the directive to “submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord’s sake…” (1 Peter 2:13) In other words, we (men and women) are to be obedient to the authorities that govern us.

If we are to submit to every ordinance of those that govern us, what do we do when those ordinances oppose the Word of YHWH? Is Peter saying to submit anyway— no matter what? If we answer in the affirmative, there are many scriptural examples that must be ignored or redefined with some pretty fantastic theological gymnastics, and one of those examples is from Peter himself!

“But Peter and the other apostles answered and said: “We ought to obey God rather than men.” (Acts 5:29)

Peter was not double minded. He was discerning, Spirit-filled, and used plenty of common sense in his application of the Torah as he taught others. A heart that is set on serving and loving YHWH will go the distance to be a good witness, a loving neighbor, and even a good citizen. But, that doesn’t make a servant of the Most High a doormat for wicked tyrants. Nor does it mean that one must submit to evil decrees, governors, headships, or kings. While a child of YHWH shouldn’t be known for being rebellious, sometimes rebellion is necessary in order to be obedient! That may sound like an oxymoron, but we have plenty of examples of this.

Consider the midwives that rebelled against Pharaoh’s decree to kill the male Hebrew babies. Or Moses’ parents that hid him as a child. Or Abigail going behind her husband’s back to meet David. Or Daniel praying to/petitioning YHWH even though it broke the law of the Medes and Persians. Or the Maccabees rebelling against the Seleucid rulers. Or the disciples ignoring the Sanhedrin’s authority and mandate to not preach in the name of Yeshua.

Obviously, there is a HUGE difference between outright rebellion (witchcraft) and opposing the laws of men that are contrary to the Word of YHWH. I believe the Scriptures are clear on this. We are to submit to those in authority over us because YHWH is the one that placed them in these positions in the first place. Just because we disagree or dislike the way that government operates or rules isn’t rebellion. If these authorities do not force one to abandon the Law of G-d, then one should submit to their authority. However, YHWH is not a sadist. He in no way expects us to obey laws or decrees that are contrary to His Word, knowing it will bring curses or severe consequences. If the government demands you kill your child or desecrate His Temple, you ought to obey YHWH rather than men. Otherwise, you are in outright rebellion to YHWH.

Peter relates these thoughts to “wives, be submissive to your husbands.” Wives are to do so in order that an unbelieving or disobedient husband may become convicted by their chaste conduct/behavior/conversation. People that use this verse as a blanket statement for women to submit no matter what, fail to point out the context. Peter is referring to an unbelieving/disobedient husband. Sadly, many equate submission to never questioning or disagreeing with the man. But, this isn’t what Peter says.

Disagreeing with or questioning an authority, ruler, king, or even YHWH is NOT rebellion, nor does it negate submission. You might not understand, agree, or like a certain Torah commandment, but you can submit and obey out of reverence for YHWH. You are even free to question Him and ask, “why?” He may or may not answer, but at least we can rest in the fact that He is perfect and infallible. We can trust Him completely.

Humans however, are fallible, even those in authority. A man (or other authority) that will not be questioned or counseled has a major issue with pride (which is rooted in ungodly fear.) They are not YHWH. They need accountability. A man that believes he is the mediator between his wife and YHWH has grossly misunderstood Biblical authority and submission.

To assume that a man’s actions, words, or decisions cannot be questioned by a woman (especially one’s other half/wife – the one that should know him best) is mind-boggling. Absolute power corrupts absolutely. YHWH placed checks and balances to ensure all people, men and women, have culpability.

Not performing an ordinance, request, or law of an authority that violates YHWH’s laws is NOT rebellion. In fact, it is actually submitting to an even higher authority — YHWH. This is true for husbands and wives too. If a husband directs his wife to violate a commandment of YHWH, whom should she obey? Obviously, I’m not condoning an attitude of strife, bitterness, or hatred towards a wayward spouse. There are wrong ways and right ways to deal with the most important human relationship on earth. We can be so right that we are wrong. The way we speak to others — especially our spouses— DOES matter greatly. Nevertheless, we need to obey YHWH and not man. We must prayerfully consider how to approach one another in humility and love.

With YHWH’s help, we can oppose our spouse when they are wrong. In fact, we SHOULD oppose our spouses when they are wrong. This is a big part of what marriage is about. We learn and grow together as ONE flesh. Iron sharpens iron. If both spouses are believers and serving YHWH, then this is the ideal. Biblical submission between humans is not a weaker party serving a higher or stronger party. Submitting to one another is an act of service and is expected by both men and women. We are here to SERVE one another as Messiah served us.

But they kept silent, for on the way they had discussed with one another which of them was the greatest. Sitting down, He called the twelve and *said to them, “If anyone wants to be first, he shall be last of all and servant of all.” (Mark 9:34-35)

YHWH gave both men and women the capacity to think and reason. The motives of our hearts will determine how we view, interpret, and act upon the many scriptural examples of biblical submission and servanthood. If we have a relationship where there is complete trust and no fear, but real respect and love, then a verse like this won’t throw us for a loop or cause us to wonder about our “proper role.”

A man and wife will seek to please and serve one another in earnest. There is no “power” struggle because respect and love reside at the heart of the marriage, which casts out fear (pride). When issues do arise, they are dealt with peaceably. When one is called out for disobedience to the Word or for a poor decision, there is no fear that someone will get hurt. The guilty party knows that the correction comes from a place of great love and it is received as divine instruction. When a person feels loved (as a woman) or respected (as a man), submission is natural. No one must tell you to “submit to one another.” (Eph. 5:21)

But, what about Ephesians 5:22-33?

Wives, be subject to your own husbands, as to the Lord. (Eph. 5:22)

This plucked verse seems to be about women being submissive to their husbands. At least that’s why this passage is usually quoted. Rarely is it used to teach Paul’s main idea. Paul claims that the entire point of his discourse is to show us a mystery. In other words, he is using the natural institution of marriage to teach us something spiritual about Messiah and His assembly:

This mystery is great; but I am speaking with reference to Christ and the church. (Eph. 5:32)

wedding-ringsMarriage is used as a parable for Messiah and His Body (Assembly). The most intimate relationship on earth between a man and woman is meant to teach us about our relationship with the Messiah. No marriage is perfect and therefore cannot properly reflect this reality. Yet, we can imagine it. We can also strive for this great intimacy not only with Messiah but also within our own marriage covenants. The “how to do this” is the real question and is the reason for so many marriage self-help books, counselors, and retreats.

The answer is found in love and respect. We just don’t know how to “DO” love and respect very well.

Nevertheless, each individual among you also is to love his own wife even as himself, and the wife must see to it that she respects her husband. (Eph. 5:33)

Paul reiterates this in Colossians:

Wives, be subject to your husbands, as is fitting in the Lord. Husbands, love your wives and do not be embittered against them. (Col. 3:18-19)

People get hurt in marriage relationships when they don’t feel loved or respected. Thus, the human tendency is to build walls around the heart to protect these wounds. Symptoms of this malady include indifference, contentiousness, nagging, silence, argumentativeness, apathy, jealously, suspicion, depression, oppression, aggression, and even abuse. The list goes on and on. The more one experiences these emotions and actions from their spouse, the thicker the walls around one’s heart becomes.

Sometimes past hurts from familial or other personal relationships are brought into the marriage covenant, which can incite the emotions and actions above, creating a vicious cycle. Nearly all relationships suffer from this condition and will continue to be a problem until deliverance has taken place. We live in a fallen and broken world that is in desperate need of the Messiah of Israel. Each of us has areas that need improvement or that needs to be completely rebuilt upon the Rock (YHWH).

If marriage is supposed to mirror our relationship with the King of the Universe, then your bond with your spouse is designed to build up and bind up these wounds, so that you can walk as ONE overcoming flesh. But this cannot happen without TWO participants that are willing to get completely naked with one another emotionally, mentally, spiritually, and physically. This is real Biblical marriage serving YHWH as ONE flesh. It requires the complete vulnerability of both the man and the woman.

But, this side of the World to Come, we each have a common enemy: the nephesh/flesh. Since the fall in Gan Eden, our flesh would much rather run and hide than deal with nakedness, shame, and vulnerability. Nephesh hates exposure. It despises looking at “the man (woman) in the mirror.” It’s so much easier to look outward than inward. The fig leaves of denial, blaming, shaming, and oppressing others are preferred to the death of the animal (human) flesh that YHWH provides for those that SUBMIT to Him.

A man should love a woman as Messiah does, but he isn’t perfect. He will fail. A woman should respect and reverence her husband like the Assembly does Messiah, but a woman is also human. She will fail. We must have mercy, patience, and long-suffering attitudes with one another or our marriages are doomed. Redeemed marriages require us to RISK our pride and our hearts (become vulnerable) with Adonai and each other.

Becoming ONE flesh isn’t easy. It requires constant work and service from both partners.  Your spouse wasn’t given to you so you can “fix” them (fix their brokenness/weaknesses). Disciples of Messiah give their weaknesses and shortcomings to the Messiah. While others can help and encourage a broken person, ultimately YHWH is the only one that can offer a maligned soul true freedom. This is why it is so very vital that we carefully choose our marriage partners. It is also why a proper marriage Ketuvah (contract/vows) needs to be in place and agreed upon before the covenant is made.

dreamstime_m_46499792Without clear covenant parameters, expectations, and boundaries, spouses hopelessly stumble from one folly to the next. Blame is placed and misplaced in an endless cycle of misery and bondage. Hurting people hurt people and relationships as close as man and wife cut the deepest. Violations are intentionally and unintentionally imposed on one another mentally, emotionally, financially, physically, and spiritually. All of these things TAKE from another. It is the opposite of GIVING oneself to the service of our spouse. It is the opposite of sacrificial love and respect. It is contrary to Biblical submission.

Poor Biblical hermeneutics and translations of the Bible escalate the destruction of marriages. For example, the roles of men and women are contorted to fit inside the framework of fallen and sinful humans. Divorce is deemed a sin, when it is a solution to the sin of breaking the Ketuvah.[1] Authority and submission in marriage mirror the instincts of the herds, packs, and prides of the beasts of the field rather than the male and female created to be the image of Elohim in the earth. Abuse and domination are often justified with a veneer of false holiness or superiority. You get the idea. Marriage is hard; and sadly, religious spirits and the doctrines of men only make it harder.

The truth is that we can’t change another person. The ONLY person you have control over is yourself. The only person that you CAN change is yourself. No man has the power to change a woman; no woman has the power to change a man. Now, a man can physically overpower a woman. She might physically fear him after this and conform to something he demands, but her heart has not changed — at least not for the better (tov). Deliverance doesn’t originate from abuse; rather abuse creates a need for deliverance.

Thus, when Paul urges a woman to submit to her husband, he is not insinuating that she become his slave. She is not “lessor” than the man. She is not his child and shouldn’t be treated as such. A woman wasn’t made in the image of Elohim to hang on a man’s every word and whim and never question his actions, motives, or decisions. The Hebrew of Genesis literally places her face to face with the man like a mirror. Together they reflect the image of Elohim (or they should).

Woman came from the side of a man as an equal co-ruler of YHWH’s creation. She is bone of his bone and flesh of his flesh. This is WHY the man is admonished to LOVE her like his own BODY. Because that’s what she is. They are one. He protects her one way and she protects him another way. It’s a relationship of reciprocity and mutuality.

The man is also commanded to love his wife as Messiah loves the Assembly— to be willing to die for her. This is sacrificial love at its finest and I don’t know any woman that wouldn’t greatly respect a man willing to die for her. This kind of love cannot be faked, and engenders a reverence like no other. You don’t have to be perfect to love or respect the way Paul is suggesting.

So, what is real submissiveness?

Messiah doesn’t rule over us with an iron fist. He never abused women (or men). He wasn’t a narcissist. He didn’t have a “power-trip.” He never forced anyone to follow Him. He LISTENED to others. He answered questions. He exercised EXTREME mercy. He healed the broken and the sick. He was gentle with sinners. Rather than punish the disobedient —- He DIED for them, taking their death penalty upon Himself.

Men are to emulate Messiah, but they are NOT the Messiah. The parable or metaphor Paul used can only be taken so far. Women are NOT to worship their husbands or replace their relationship with the Messiah with their husband. Husbands were never meant to be the mediator between their wives and YHWH. Man is not the god of woman, no more than woman is the god of man. Either extreme is idolatry, not Biblical submission.

The conclusion is that a woman is to submit to a man as far he emulates Messiah. So long as the man walks and follows in the steps of Yeshua, then the woman follows also. But the minute the man follows his own flesh, a lying spirit, or veers to the left or to the right, a woman is not required to blindly follow or submit to the man. Or else they both will fall into the ditch. But, this type of submission is a reciprocal mandate. We are to submit to one another. (Eph. 5:21)

Sadly, I ‘ve witnessed well-meaning women blindly follow their husbands. Believing they were being Biblically “submissive”, these women failed to hold their husbands accountable to grave sin, knew their decisions were costly, and they tumbled down a path of destruction together. The sad part is that these poor women believed that by following their husbands they were doing YHWH’s will. In their mind, they had no right or authority to say anything about the behavior and decisions of their man, so they remained silent and the entire family paid in spades. The shackles of man’s traditions and doctrines can be very heavy and the price can be immense. But where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty! (2 Cor. 3:17)

I’m so very thankful that Queen Esther didn’t remain silent.[2] Or Deborah. Or Abigail. Or the daughters of Zelophehad. Or Ruth. Or Yael. Or Hannah. Or Mary Magdalene. Or Priscilla. Or Lydia. Or Huldah. Just to name a few.

I hope our understanding of real Biblical submissiveness and authority continues to grow. The more I study the Bible, the more I am amazed by just HOW much YHWH values women. This theme runs in the background behind nearly every story. And, why wouldn’t this be the case? Isn’t the whole Book about Him and His Bride?

Submission & Authority Part II

For more information, see The Biblical Role of Women



[1] Divorce is a viable solution to the “hardness of men’s hearts” according to the Torah. (Dt. 24) Yeshua didn’t change this law in Matthew 5 if you read the text in Greek. Please look up and learn the difference between “putting away” and a “writ of divorce”. They are two separate, but related actions. Yeshua didn’t change any of YHWH’s laws, even about divorce, for that is the work of an antichrist.

People love to proclaim that adultery is the only “Biblical” reason for divorce, but the Torah says the penalty for adultery was death (stoning), not divorce. Moreover, God doesn’t hate divorce; He is a divorcee Himself! (Jer. 3:8, Mal. 2:16) Rather, what YHWH hates, per the Hebrew of Malachi 2:16, is when a man “puts away” his wife without giving a writ of divorce. This selfish act left the woman in limbo with no support and without the option to remarry. Torah requires BOTH “putting away” and a “Writ of Divorcement”, and then the woman is free to marry another. (Dt. 24) Until mankind is completely redeemed, men and women will continue to have hard hearts and sin. Hence, divorce will be allowed until that day comes because YHWH is merciful.

Please read fellow BEKY Book author, Dr. Robin Gould’s, book on Divorce and Remarriage in the Bible. Let the Word set you free!

[2] Queen Esther acted the very day that she heard of her husband’s rash VOW to destroy her people. This was a blatant role reversal from the Torah’s discourse on vows in Numbers 30. To remain silent was akin to agreeing to a rash vow and taking the guilt upon oneself (vs. 14-15). Mordechai used the language of Deuteronomy 30 to persuade Esther (even though she was a woman) to step up and speak to her husband.

Est 4:14  For if you remain completely silent at this time, relief and deliverance will arise for the Jews from another place, but you and your father’s house will perish. Yet who knows whether you have come to the kingdom for such a time as this?”

For Part II, click here.

Categories: Messianic Issues, Women | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , | 11 Comments

The Four Cups of Passover

Four_Cups_-_VideoA few of years ago, I revised our family Haggadah with a special emphasis on revealing the Messiah. While I prefer a more traditional Haggadah and feel it amply reveals Messiah, it’s not about me. (Imagine that, lol!) My mother suggested this format for those new to keeping the Moedim (feasts). And, I completely agree with her. If we truly want to “love our neighbor,” we must consider where others are at on the journey. How we handle these “little children” is a direct reflection of our own hearts. After all, the Haggadah (the telling) opens with the words: “Let all who are hungry come and eat.”

Yet, I’ve met some Torah keepers that refuse to allow certain people to “eat of their Passover.”[1] While I understand Torah commandments regarding this vital festival, I wonder if we are using just weights and equal measures when we make a judgment that refuses their participation? Will we deny the little children to entrance to the Kingdom? Do we have the “authority” to deny them?

Mat. 18:1-6 At that time the disciples came to Jesus and said, “Who then is greatest in the kingdom of heaven?” (2) And He called a child to Himself and set him before them, (3) and said, “Truly I say to you, unless you are converted and become like children, you will not enter the kingdom of heaven. (4) “Whoever then humbles himself as this child, he is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven. (5) “And whoever receives one such child in My name receives Me; (6) but whoever causes one of these little ones who believe in Me to stumble, it would be better for him to have a heavy millstone hung around his neck, and to be drowned in the depth of the sea.

Many “seasoned” in keeping the festivals have forgotten their first love and that that love “covers a multitude of sins.”[2] Misplaced zeal can easily morph into self righteousness and hard heartedness, which IS a great stumbling block to those coming to the knowledge of the truth. This haughty spirit believes it and its form of godliness and obedience has made it greater in the Kingdom. It boasts of its right calendar or right tradition. No one is immune to this spirit or how it affects and infects the Body. The irony is that it is the opposite of the Spirit of Passover. It is antithetical to the four cups and the matzah, because Passover is all about innocent faith, trust, and humility.

This year, Adonai has been speaking this message to me through the four traditional cups of the Passover Seder.[3] I had not previously meditated on the fact that the Passover meal centers around FOUR.[4] The number four in Hebrew is the letter “dalet.” It is a picture of a door (delet). Passover is YHWH’s appointed time or moed that commemorates the Israelites applying the blood of a lamb to the lintels and doorposts of their homes. Without this act of obedience through faith, the death angel would have smitten Israel’s firstborn sons along with the Egyptians during the tenth plague. Moreover, Yeshua declared Himself the door. Consider the context of the following verses. Those familiar with Pesach will receive His intent immediately.

I am the door; if anyone enters through Me, he will be saved, and will go in and out and find pasture. The thief comes only to steal and kill and destroy; I came that they may have life, and have it abundantly.” (John 10:9-10)

All those in covenant with YHWH must, by faith, apply the Lamb’s blood to their doorposts (hearts). There has always only been one Way to the Father. Passover is the entry or doorway to covenant with Adonai.[5] Outside the covenant (door), the enemy seeks one’s destruction. This is illustrated through Cain[6] (sin crouches at the door) and with the death angel in Egypt passing over the homes with the blood of the Lamb.

Pesach is that first inkling of raw wisdom (light) that draws us unto the Father. It is realizing the depth of our depravity and our desperate need for a Savior. It is not as mature as Shavuot (Pentecost) or Sukkot (Tabernacles). But, it is still the entry point. It is accepting the Messiah and the Covenant. Understanding and deep Knowledge comes later and with maturity, as one journeys through the wilderness with YHWH. Again, will we deny the less mature babes from entering in?

When they had arrived and gathered the assembly together, they began to report all things that God had done with them and how He had opened a door of faith to the Gentiles. (Acts 14:27)

For I do not wish to see you now just in passing; for I hope to remain with you for some time, if the Lord permits. But I will remain in Ephesus until Pentecost; for a wide door for effective service has opened to me, and there are many adversaries. (1 Cor. 16:7-9)

There are real adversaries outside the “door.” The last thing one would desire to do is become an enemy to those trying to enter this DOOR! I’m afraid that some of us have (unintentionally) become an adversary to the immature children trying to enter. We must repent of this great tragedy! A wide door of effective service is open to us and the myriads that are loved by the Father. We have no right to be an enemy by standing in front of the door and blocking those that desire to “come.” Perhaps we do not yet properly understand righteous judgment. If we have received mercy, we should also extend mercy.  (For more, consider reading: Hezekiah’s Passover.)

passover_sederFour Cups

Ps. 116:12-13 (NASB) What shall I render to the LORD For all His benefits toward me?  13  I shall lift up the cup of salvation And call upon the name of the LORD.

Dr. Alewine’s Creation Gospel[7] model teaches that the number four has a lot in common with the number seven or fullness. It alludes to authority, government, and servanthood, first mentioned on day FOUR of creation. All these belong to Messiah Yeshua. He truly is the Door to Life. Passover may be the entry to the Covenant, but it points ahead to the complete redemption to come. The four cups of Passover mirror this truth in a profound way. They are based on the following passage from Exodus:

Ex. 6:6-7 “Say, therefore, to the sons of Israel, ‘I am the LORD, and I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will deliver you from their bondage. I will also redeem you with an outstretched arm and with great judgments. (7) ‘Then I will take you for My people, and I will be your God; and you shall know that I am the LORD your God, who brought you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians.

The four cups are called by different names depending on the Haggadah one is using. Don’t let this confuse you. It is very difficult to encapsulate the full meaning of each cup with one English word. Therefore, it is fitting that we embrace the various names used for each one and seek to understand how they harmonize or complete the “picture” of the promises given to us in Exodus.

  1. The Cup of Sanctification —- “I will bring you out”
  2. The Cup of Deliverance/Plagues/Judgment —- “I will deliver you”
  3. The Cup of Redemption/Blessing —- “I will redeem you”
  4. The Cup of Praise/Hope/Kingdom/Salvation/Restoration —- “I will take you for My people”

The cups are drunk in the following order throughout the seder:

  1. Drink 1st Cup with Kiddush (at the start of the seder).
  2. Drink 2nd Cup after the Maggid (telling of Pesach story).
  3. Drink 3rd Cup after Birkat Hamazon (blessing for the meal and Afikomen. Also, pour Elijah’s cup in anticipation for final redemption and coming Messiah.)
  4. Drink 4th Cup after Hallel (Psalms of praise).


We will look at each cup and explore its implications for the people of YHWH.


The Cup of Sanctification

“I will bring you out.” Ex. 6:6

Before saving faith, there is utter darkness. We are like dead men walking blindly toward our ultimate demise. In other words, one is in complete bondage to sin and death at this stage. There is no escape. Enter Adonai. Despite one’s circumstances and multiple transgressions, the Creator of Heaven and Earth loves His Creation. He loves YOU. Therefore, with a Mighty Hand, He separates us from the bondage of sin and death. One simply must believe His promise and apply the blood to the doorpost of their heart by faith. God alone separates His people from the clutches of “Pharaoh,” so they can freely serve Him.[8]

The Sarajevo Haggadah 14th century

The Sarajevo Haggadah 14th century

When enslaved to sin and death, one cannot serve or worship YHWH in the manner He prescribes. Logically, the first step is for Him to call or bring one out of this depravity. This is the symbolism of the first cup, sanctification. You have been set apart, called out, and marked as one of His children. Passover is the moed (feast) that demonstrates this reality in process, deed, and ritual.

How this is accomplished by the Father is also abundantly clear; it is by the blood of the Passover Lamb. This has been the process from the very beginning. (Rev. 13:8) Salvation has always been accomplished by believing (faith in action) in the promises of God.

By looking back on the original Passover, the first cup is akin to salvation from the harsh bondage of Egypt or Pharaoh (darkness/sin/death). Like the ancient Israelites, one might still be in a figurative Egypt or the world at this point, but the plagues of judgment placed on the evil taskmasters have lessened one’s hardships considerably. Light has pierced the darkness with a grand promise. We believe, watch, and wait for His deliverance.


The Cup of Deliverance

“I will deliver you.” Ex. 6:6

The second cup is based on YHWH’s promise to deliver you. How is this different from the first cup, “bringing you out?” Being called out and separated is only the beginning of the redemption process. Once separated unto the Father, one is still in great need of rescue. The trappings of Egypt are many. These bondages have many forms with very tight shackles. Like Pharaoh, they do not want to let us go! While some of these trappings are external, many are internal. One’s time in Egypt (the world) has created a lot of soul ties. One’s nephesh or flesh likes many of the delicacies in which it has grown accustomed. Hopefully, Abba will not have to send plagues or judgments in order for one to turn fully toward Him.

passover 2The good news is that no matter the issue, deliverance IS available. It’s never too late and one is never too old to experience this sweet release. When Israel was “delivered” from the burdens of the Egyptians, it was so that they could worship YHWH as He intended. Therefore, anything that hinders one from being able to worship Him in fullness can be likened to one of the “plagues,” whether they are external or internal. Anything that is placed before YHWH is an idol of the heart that needs to be removed. The point is to keep seeking for the Promise. Our Deliverer is Mighty!

Traditionally, this cup is drunk at the conclusion of the maggid or retelling of the Passover story. Wine is a symbol of joy and celebration. Because our deliverance and liberation was costly to the lives the Egyptians, we decrease our joy in recognition of their suffering. Thus, one reduces their joy or the contents of the second cup by dipping a finger into their cup to remove a drop for each of the ten plagues or judgments.

This cup can be compared to being delivered and rescued from the clutches of Pharaoh. Though the enemy chased them with great haste and with many chariots, the mighty pillar of cloud by day and the pillar of fire by night would not allow the Egyptians to touch even one hair on the heads of the Israelites.


The Cup of Redemption

“I will redeem you.” Ex. 6:6

The third cup is often called redemption or blessing. YHWH buys back or redeems His people from the realm of sin and death. At the first Passover, the blood of the Lamb saved the lives of the Israelites. But with Pharaoh and Egypt closing in, many were sure that YHWH brought them into the desert to die. If we are honest, sometimes we feel the same way. Are you still there, Abba? Things are looking pretty bad down here! I am about to be swallowed up by the enemy! At this point, Israel would be standing in front of the Reed (Red) Sea. People that have known nothing but bondage often believe the worst in hard circumstances. It takes intent and time to change one’s attitude from victim to victor. Consider Israel’s words as they stood near the Reed Sea:

Ex. 14:11=12 Then they said to Moses, “Is it because there were no graves in Egypt that you have taken us away to die in the wilderness? Why have you dealt with us in this way, bringing us out of Egypt? “Is this not the word that we spoke to you in Egypt, saying, ‘Leave us alone that we may serve the Egyptians’? For it would have been better for us to serve the Egyptians than to die in the wilderness.”

To the Israelite’s natural eyes, their circumstances appeared to be hopeless. Even though they experienced the miracle of the plagues and the pillar of cloud and fire, they still weren’t convinced that God would actually save them. In fact, it probably felt as if He led them into a horrible trap (G-d Forbid)! But that was far from the true intent of our loving Elohim. Instead, He wanted the people (and us) to be completely confident in His saving power and in His great affection toward them. The very next verse says:

red seaEx. 14:13-14 But Moses said to the people, “Do not fear! Stand by and see the salvation of the LORD which He will accomplish for you today; for the Egyptians whom you have seen today, you will never see them again forever. “The LORD will fight for you while you keep silent.

Moses tells the people to stand still and see the salvation; that is, the YESHUA, of YHWH. Abba’s salvation, His Yeshua, will accomplish our complete redemption from Egypt (sin and death). YHWH will fight for us, while we shut our doubting mouths. This cup is drunk after the meal in the traditional seder. It is this cup that Yeshua linked to the New Covenant and His shed blood:

And in the same way He took the cup after they had eaten, saying, “This cup which is poured out for you is the new covenant in My blood. (Luke 22:20 NASB)

The cup of blessing that we bless, is it not a partaking of the blood of Messiah? The bread which we break, is it not a partaking of the body of Messiah? (1 Cor. 10:16 HRB)

This cup also mirrors the timing of the parting sea, and crossing over on dry ground. Doubting the intentions of Elohim is no longer an option; redemption or being bought back by the Almighty is a clear and present reality. The waters figuratively wash the deathly dust of Egypt from weary souls and baptize one in Moses and Yeshua. Thus, hearts are prepared for the upcoming fourth cup of hallel or praise.

Rev. 15:2-4 And I saw something like a sea of glass mixed with fire, and those who had been victorious over the beast and his image and the number of his name, standing on the sea of glass, holding harps of God. And they sang the song of Moses, the bond-servant of God, and the song of the Lamb, saying, “Great and marvelous are Your works, O Lord God, the Almighty; Righteous and true are Your ways, King of the nations! “Who will not fear, O Lord, and glorify Your name? For You alone are holy; For ALL THE NATIONS WILL COME AND WORSHIP BEFORE YOU, FOR YOUR RIGHTEOUS ACTS HAVE BEEN REVEALED.”

Messiah said that He wouldn’t partake of this cup again until, “I drink it new with you in My Father’s kingdom.” (Mt. 26:29)

Mar. 14:23-26 And when He had taken a cup and given thanks, He gave it to them, and they all drank from it. (24) And He said to them, “This is My blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many. (25) “Truly I say to you, I will never again drink of the fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new in the kingdom of God.” (26) After singing a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives.

Interestingly, and a wonder to meditate upon, the Mishnah has an interesting note about not drinking additional wine between the third and four cups.

They mix a third cup; he blesses his meal. [The] fourth [cup] is concluded with Hallel, which he says with the [concluding] blessing. Between these cups, if he wishes to drink, he may drink. Between the third and the fourth [cups], he may not drink. – Pesachim 10:7

Passover is about REDEMPTION. Yeshua is our Sanctifier, our Deliverer, and our Redeemer. Of all the Biblical stories about exile and redemption, Passover is the one that YHWH asks one to personally identify with. Passover is Personal; it is the cup of our salvations, as Psalm 116:13 declares. The many sets of “fours” associated with Passover, like the cups, are wonderful tools to help one accurately recount this most important truth.


The Cup of Praise

“I will take you for My people.” Ex. 6:7

The fourth and final cup is a picture of restoration and completeness. This is one reason it is sometimes called the cup of hope, acceptance, or salvation. I prefer its more common name, hallel or praise. Though the Passover is the beginning of YHWH’s moedim (feasts) cycle, in it, He declares the end.[9] God’s desire has always been to restore us (deal with our sin) and then dwell with us for eternity.

Thus, with the fourth cup, we await the coming Kingdom of Heaven where Yeshua will be our King. Wine can be a symbol of judgment or blessing.[10] A cup or kos can denote the same imagery. Passover weaves both of these themes together seamlessly. Sin and wickedness must be judged. There is a false bread and a false wine that competes with Adonai’s covenant Passover meal. Like the righteous woman and the harlot, both call and ask one to rest in their presence.

Pr. 4:17 For they eat the bread of wickedness And drink the wine of violence.

Obviously, the harlot feeds one false bread and wine; which is, in reality a covenant of wickedness. The problem is that the nephesh or flesh craves the (spiritual) false bread and wine just as one often prefers processed junk rather than the healthy plants and animals that Abba meant for consumption.

Nephesh (flesh) fears judgment because it knows that what it likes isn’t healthy or holy. Like the Israelites, we often fear that YHWH won’t keep His promise to bring us out, deliver us, redeem us, and make us His people. Many feel as though they will get lost in the shuffle of the four cups. But YHWH is faithful, even when we are not![11]

1 Th. 5:23-24 Now may the God of peace Himself sanctify you entirely; and may your spirit and soul and body be preserved complete, without blame at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. Faithful is He who calls you, and He also will bring it to pass.

Though Passover is certainly the season to thoroughly examine oneself and root out all chametz (sin), it is also a time to remember these four grand promises of Adonai. His Word will not return to Him void. I think many fear that instead of blessing, Adonai will only rain down judgment upon their head. For we know that we are not worthy. And, we know that there is a lot that we still don’t know.

Is. 55:11-12 So shall My word be that goes forth from My mouth; It shall not return to Me void, But it shall accomplish what I please, And it shall prosper in the thing for which I sent it. “For you shall go out with joy, And be led out with peace; The mountains and the hills Shall break forth into singing before you, And all the trees of the field shall clap their hands.

chesed_etymologyPsalm 136 is generally recited or sang before partaking of the fourth cup. This Psalm recounts the fact that Adonai’s mercy/lovingkindness/grace endures forever. This is good news! The Hebrew word repeated over and over in this Psalm is chesed (חֶסֶד). Abba’s chesed endures forever. Chesed cannot be encapsulated by just one English word. In fact, it would take a book or many volumes to fully realize the depth of what chesed actually means.

To put it as succinctly as possible, chesed is a covenantal term that encompasses both love and loyalty. God has chesed toward us and hopefully, we have chesed toward Him and our neighbor. My acceptance of His chesed requires that I give it back to Him and to others. The Theological Workbook of the Old Testament says this under chesed:

“God’s loving-kindness is that sure love which will not let Israel go. Not all Israel’s persistent waywardness could ever destroy it. Though Israel be faithless, yet God remains faithful still. This steady, persistent refusal of God to wash his hands of wayward Israel is the essential meaning of the Hebrew word which is translated loving-kindness.”

The wonderment of God’s immense chesed toward us may cause one to question His righteous judgment or justice. How do mercy and judgment coexist? Which one is stronger? Obviously, we do not deserve the chesed or loving-kindness of God. The Bible is full of examples of a wayward stiff-necked Israel. We are no different. Like them, we most often refuse to walk in His Ways. In other words, we all deserve judgment, destruction, and death.

Knowing this, most have an unhealthy fear of the coming worldwide judgment, life circumstances in general, and of what God is going to do with our “loved” ones. But, this type of thinking is fear based. It is not rooted in chesed or true love. All of one’s worries, anxieties, and fears come forth from a skewed view of the Creator. He is no tyrant, dictator, or sadist. He is LOVE.

1Jn. 4:16-19 We have come to know and have believed the love which God has for us. God is love, and the one who abides in love abides in God, and God abides in him. By this, love is perfected with us, so that we may have confidence in the Day of Judgment; because as He is, so also are we in this world. (18) There is no fear in love; but perfect love casts out fear, because fear involves punishment, and the one who fears is not perfected in love. We love, because He first loved us.

Notice what John says above. FEAR has to do with punishment. When we only fear punishment, our love is NOT perfected. In other words, if we fail to grasp how deep and wide the love that God has for us really is, we will fear. We will worry. We will believe that YHWH is ready to strike us down at our very next breath. But LOVE, that is His chesed, is stronger than the judgment we all deserve. John reminds us of this, so that we can have confidence in the Day of Judgment.

YHWH is certainly a holy and righteous Elohim, but His love for His people is greater still. Rashi said that God gave “precedence to the rule of mercy” and joined it “with the rule of justice.” God’s judgment and His mercy is an enigma to our peon minds and hearts. Which shall we receive? Passover is the perfect time to ponder this question. The cups reveal the answer. Within each, wickedness is judged and yet mercy prevails. The paradox may twist one’s brain, but hopefully it causes your heart to rejoice.

Adonai will NEVER give up on you, me, our loved ones, or any one else. His chesed is incomprehensible. His love NEVER fails, it NEVER gives up, and NEVER runs out on you or me. This is chesed. This is Love. This is Covenant. This is Passover. May your Cup of Praise runneth over this Pesach and always.

For more on Pesach, click here.

[1] They are referring to those still in the “church” or those that may not be as “Torah observant” as themselves. There are direct and clear commandments that admonish us to not eat (the Passover) with those that are practicing blatant and willful sin. However, we must remember that there is always a sacrifice for sin committed in ignorance. If YHWH provides a sacrifice for them, we should also. Those that DO know better and yet persist in their sin, Paul has the correct course of action to take: But now I have written unto you not to keep company, if any man that is called a brother be a fornicator, or covetous, or an idolater, or a railer, or a drunkard, or an extortioner; with such an one no not to eat. (1Cor. 5:11 KJV)

[2] 1 Peter 4:8

[3] Please refer to Dr. Hollisa Alewine’s Creation Gospel workbooks. These thematic studies will forever change your worldview of the Scriptures. Your understanding of the “bigger picture” will come into sharp focus by learning about the Seven Spirits of God and how they operate in both the physical and spiritual realms.

[4] For example, there are FOUR sons (or children) that ask FOUR questions, three matzot (unleavened bread) become FOUR with the breaking of the middle cracker, YHWH uses FOUR expressions to describe our redemption from Egypt, which is mirrored in the FOUR cups of wine.

[5] Whether they realize it or not, when a Christian accepts Yeshua as their Lord and Savior and repents of their sins, they are in effect applying the Passover Lamb’s blood to their “doorposts.”

[6] If you do well, will not your countenance be lifted up? And if you do not do well, sin is crouching at the door; and its desire is for you, but you must master it.” (Gen. 4:7)


[8] The famous “Let my people go” phrase is always followed by YHWH’s intent: “so that they might serve me.” Ex. 7:16; 8:1,20; 9:1, 13; etc.

[9] Is. 46:9-10 “Remember the former things long past, For I am God, and there is no other; I am God, and there is no one like Me, Declaring the end from the beginning, And from ancient times things which have not been done, Saying, ‘My purpose will be established, And I will accomplish all My good pleasure‘.

[10] Ps. 75:7-8 But God is the Judge; He puts down one and exalts another. For a cup is in the hand of the LORD, and the wine foams; It is well mixed, and He pours out of this; Surely all the wicked of the earth must drain and drink down its dregs.

Pr. 3:9-10 Honor the LORD from your wealth And from the first of all your produce; So your barns will be filled with plenty And your vats will overflow with new wine.

[11] 2 Tim. 2:11-13 It is a trustworthy statement: For if we died with Him, we will also live with Him; If we endure, we will also reign with Him; If we deny Him, He also will deny us; If we are faithless, He remains faithful, for He cannot deny Himself.


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Attitude of Gratitude

I hope you had a blessed Thanksgiving! I apologize for not posting much this month. I have several articles in the works, but other obligations have prevented me from devoting the time necessary to bring them to completion. Meanwhile, I was absolutely touched by this message from Dr. Hollisa Alewine about Giving Thanks.  Please click here to read: HODAAT(Those of you connected to Grace in Torah on Facebook may have already seen this link.)

I’m also including another link on next week’s  Torah Portion by one of my favorite Torah commentators, Ardelle Brody: Vayeshev(Genesis 37:1-40:23)  

Jacob wrestlingChanukah is just around the corner, which means the world (especially America) is in full swing Christmas and commericalism mode. This season is a hard one for many. Like Jacob, we wrestle with how to handle friends and family, and even YHWH as the days grow darker. I encourage you to be a light in the darkness. May your actions be motivated by LOVE and not FEAR of man or circumstances as you learn to walk anew.

I pray that we are not provoked by guilt, anger, fear, or even tears as we tenderly speak life and love to all those that do not yet see or understand why we limit or eliminate their most beloved holidays in favor of the Creator’s calendar. Do not grow weary in well doing. Be patient, kind, and long-suffering. Be grateful and thankful. If you don’t know what to do, just remember that LOVE never fails. (I Cor. 13)


Above all, keep fervent in your love for one another, because love covers a multitude of sins.(1Pet. 4:8 NASB) 

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The Flow of Love

The following model is a decidedly Greek one. Nevertheless, I have chosen this format because those of us raised and educated in Greek thought often have a hard time transitioning to a Hebraic mindset when studying the Scriptures. This is especially true when westerner’s think of God’s love, grace, and Spirit as being opposed to His commandments and Law. My hope is to show you that God’s Holy Law is in no way contrary to His love, mercy, or Spirit. In fact, the Law (Torah) properly applied is the epitome of His grace!

So then, the Law is holy, and the commandment is holy and righteous and good. (Rom. 7:12)

The flow chart in the figure below begins with LOVE.[1] It is love that is the greatest of all commandments and we know that God is love.[2]

And this is love, that we walk according to His commandments. This is the commandment, just as you have heard from the beginning, that you should walk in it. (2Jn. 1:6)

There are two branches that break off of the main heading of love. These two branches are what Yeshua called the greatest commandments.


On these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets. (Mat. 22:40)

If we look closely at the Ten Commandments,[3] we see that the two tablets express the two greatest commandments in more detail. The first five teach us how to love Adonai[4] and the second five teach us how to love our neighbor. Do we need to be taught how to love God and our neighbor? Apparently, God thinks that we do.

Sometimes we assume that “love” is fully understood by all people. But, love is not always a universal concept. For example, a degraded or unregenerate mind can easily misconstrue love with lust and commit heinous acts of rape, incest, or pedophilia. This type of twisting can even happen on less disastrous levels when we simply “assume” that someone will like something merely by the fact that we ourselves do. In other words, do unto others as you would have them do unto you —- unless you are a pervert or degenerate! All kidding aside, it is reasonable to ask: “How do we love?”

How do we love YHWH (the LORD) and how do we love our neighbor? The Ten Commandments answer these questions. But even these ten can leave some ambiguity when we try to obey them. This is what the remaining 603 commandments in the Torah (Law) explain for us. The Rabbis have long counted out 613 distinct commandments within the Torah. There are 365 positive (do’s) and 248 negative (do not’s) commandments.

What?! There are 613 laws? Who could possibly keep that many statutes?[5] The English idea of “Law” is often thought of as harsh and rigid. So much so that grace is usually contrasted with Law. But perhaps we should allow the Bible to define our perception of God’s Law. The Hebrew word Torah,[6] translated as Law, actually means “instructions.” These are the instructions that Adonai sovereignly and lovingly gave His people. The Torah was never meant to burden God’s people; it was meant to bless and prosper them (and us).[7]

Confusion abounds when we misunderstand the function of the Law/Torah. Adonai never intended for His instructions or law to be the means by which He saved the children of Israel or us. There is a great analogy used by James[8] that we can use to express this. When you look into the mirror (the Law), it shows you your blemishes. You wouldn’t take the mirror off the wall and try to wash your face with it, would you?[9] The function of the mirror is to simply show you where the dirt is; it can never clean you. But, you have a choice of whether to wash your face or not. James compares those that are hearers and not doers of the word to someone who looks into the mirror (the Torah) and then does nothing about the dirt on his face.

In other words, salvation was NEVER the function of God’s Torah. It simply explains to you what sin is and is not. You choose to walk in holiness by being obedient, or you choose to walk contrary. God’s desire is for us to “see” where we have missed the mark and then adjust our walk accordingly. Repentance is not just saying, “I’m sorry.” It also requires one to align their life with Adonai’s standards. Nevertheless, there have always been some that try to use the mirror to wash their face. Adonai provided the soap (the Lamb) that cleanses us at the very beginning.

And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world. (Rev. 13:8 KJV)

We should be rejoicing that our loving Heavenly Father cares enough about us that He gave us all the instructions we need to lead a blessed and holy life. But this gift can never save or wash us clean. So, if we find that we have animosity toward God’s instructions, perhaps we need to search our hearts for the root of this contempt; for it does not originate from the Holy Spirit. We should be able to agree with Paul and David:

Do we then nullify the Law through faith? May it never be! On the contrary, we establish the Law. (Rom. 3:31)

Your righteousness is an everlasting righteousness, And Your law (Torah) is truth. (Ps. 119:142)

 I long for Your salvation (Yeshua), O LORD, And Your law (Torah) is my delight. (Ps. 119:174)

Before we get to the flow chart, let’s establish a few more facts. Due to the nature of the commandments, no one person can keep every law. This is because some commandments deal particularly with men. If you are a woman, it is impossible to keep regulations that speak of night seminal emissions. Likewise, a man can never keep the commands relating to a woman’s menstrual flow. There are also many statutes that are directed to the Levitical priesthood. If you are not a Levite from the line of Aaron, many commandments simply aren’t applicable to you. Moreover, there are commandments that require a person to be living in the land of Israel with a functioning Temple in place for fulfillment. Believe it or not, these restrictions knock out a ton of the 613 mitzvot. Is the “yoke” feeling lighter?

Speaking of yokes, it is a very sad thing that we consider God’s Law to be an unbearable yoke. This must grieve our Father. I know it would grieve me if my son considered the rules of my house to be an “unbearable” yoke that only brought misery to his life. My house rules are outlined to protect my son because I love him. If only we could come to our Father as a little child and trust that He really does know what is best for us. And, that His desire is not to take all the fun out life, but to prosper and prolong our days.

For My yoke is easy and My burden is light.” (Mat. 11:30)

For this is the love of God, that we keep His commandments; and His commandments are not burdensome. (1Jn. 5:3)

So what is our real burden? What is a yoke that is “unbearable”? SIN! When we break or transgress God’s law, it brings terrible consequences into our lives. Moreover, any time we allow manmade laws and traditions to supersede the simplicity of the Word, we become yoked with other type of bondage. We see both of these “enemies” exposed and dealt with in the Brit Chadashah (N.T.). But, even God’s holy law can be used as weapon instead of a blessing if it is not applied properly. LOVE must be the motivation and the desire behind our obedience. Any time our motive is self-righteousness we have moved into the realm of sin.

This is also true when we are leading or teaching others about Adonai and His commandments. We can never demand obedience, for then the student’s motivation would be either to please us or their own fears. Yes, love is the greatest commandment of all.  Our flow chart begins like this:

Commandment chart

Now, let’s break our first branch (Love YHWH) down into the first five of the Ten Commandments.

1st Tablet (Love the LORD) Ex. 20:1-12

  1. Then God spoke all these words, saying, “I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery. (vs. 1-2)
  2. “You shall have no other gods before Me.”You shall not make for yourself an idol, or any likeness of what is in heaven above or on the earth beneath or in the water under the earth. “You shall not worship them or serve them; for I, the LORD your God, am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children, on the third and the fourth generations of those who hate Me, but showing lovingkindness to thousands, to those who love Me and keep My commandments. (vs. 3-6)
  3. “You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain, for the LORD will not leave him unpunished who takes His name in vain. (vs. 7)
  4. “Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. “Six days you shall labor and do all your work, but the seventh day is a sabbath of the LORD your God; in it you shall not do any work, you or your son or your daughter, your male or your female servant or your cattle or your sojourner who stays with you. “For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, the sea and all that is in them, and rested on the seventh day; therefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day and made it holy. (vs. 8-11)
  5. “Honor your father and your mother, that your days may be prolonged in the land which the LORD your God gives you. (vs. 12) [Please refer to footnote number 4 for why this applies to loving God])

2nd Tablet (Love your Neighbor) Ex. 20:13-17  

  1. “You shall not murder. (vs. 13)
  2. “You shall not commit adultery. (vs. 14)
  3. “You shall not steal. (vs. 15)
  4. “You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor. (vs. 16)
  5. “You shall not covet your neighbor’s house; you shall not covet your neighbor’s wife or his male servant or his female servant or his ox or his donkey or anything that belongs to your neighbor.” (vs. 17)

Each of these commandments instructs in one way or another about HOW one is to “love” the LORD or our their neighbor. If we continued our flow chart, the remaining 603 commandments would fall under one of these two primary categories or headlines. For the sake of time, I haven’t categorized these commandments. (Perhaps, another day!) But, I have copied and pasted the full list of the 613 commandments. They are divided between the positive (do’s) and negative (do not’s) mitzvot. As you read through them, answer for yourself whether the commandment has to do with loving Adonai or loving your neighbor. Also, consider whether or not the commandment can be kept today or whether it is applicable to you. Rebuke any spirit that provokes you to try to justify NOT being obedient. Prayerfully ask the Ruach HaKodesh (Holy Spirit) to convict you of sin committed in ignorance and ask for His guidance in becoming more obedient for the sake of love.

The conclusion, when all has been heard, is: fear God and keep His commandments, because this applies to every person. (Ecc. 12:13)

The Complete List of the 613 Mitzvot (Commandments)

The 248 Positive Mitzvot: “The Do’s”

Relationship to God

  • 1          To believe in God. Shemot (Exodus) 20:2
  • 2          To acknowledge the Unity of God. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 6:4
  • 3          To love God. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 6:5
  • 4          To fear God. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 6:13
  • 5          To serve God. Shemot (Exodus) 23:25; Devarim (Deuteronomy) 11:13; 13:4
  • 6          To cleave to God. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 10:20
  • 7          On taking an oath by God’s Name. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 10:20
  • 8          On walking in God’s ways. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 28:9
  • 9          On Sanctifying God’s Name. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:32


  • 10        Recite the Sh’ma each morning and evening. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 6:7
  • 11        Study and Teaching Torah. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 6:7
  • 12        Bind Tefillin on the head. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 6:8
  • 13        Bind Tefillin on the hand. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 6:8
  • 14        Make Tzitzit with thread of blue, garments corners. Bamidbar (Numbers) 15:38
  • 15        Affix a Mezuzah to doorposts and gates. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 6:9
  • 16        Assemble each 7th year to hear the Torah read. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 31:12
  • 17        A king must write a copy of Torah for himself. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 17:18
  • 18        Everyone should have a Torah scroll. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 31:19
  • 19        Praise God after eating, Grace after meals. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 8:10

Temple and the Priests

  • 20        On building a Sanctuary / (Tabernacle / Temple) for God. Shemot (Exodus) 25:8
  • 21        Respect the Sanctuary. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:30
  • 22        On guarding the Sanctuary. Bamidbar (Numbers) 18:4
  • 23        On Levitical services in the Tabernacle. Bamidbar (Numbers) 18:23
  • 24        On Cohanim (Priests) washing hands and feet before entering Temple. Shemot (Exodus) 30:19
  • 25        On kindling the Menorah by the Cohanim (Priests). Shemot (Exodus) 27:21
  • 26        On the Cohanim (Priests) blessing Israel. Bamidbar (Numbers) 6:23
  • 27        On the Showbread before the Ark. Shemot (Exodus) 25:30
  • 28        On Burning the Incense on the Golden Altar twice daily. Shemot (Exodus) 30:7
  • 29        On the perpetual fire on the Altar. Vayikra (Leviticus) 6:13
  • 30        On removing the ashes from the Altar. Vayikra (Leviticus) 6:10
  • 31        On removing unclean persons from the camp. Bamidbar (Numbers) 5:2
  • 32        On honoring the Cohanim (Priests). Vayikra (Leviticus) 21:8
  • 33        On the garments of the Cohanim (Priests). Shemot (Exodus) 28:2
  • 34        On Cohanim (Priests) bearing the Ark on their shoulders. Bamidbar (Numbers) 7:9
  • 35        On the holy anointing oil. Shemot (Exodus) 30:31
  • 36        On the Cohanim (Priests) ministering in rotation / watches. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:6-8
  • 37        On the Cohanim (Priests) being defiled for dead relatives. Vayikra (Leviticus) 21:2-3
  • 38        On that Cohen haGadol (High Priest) may only marry a virgin. Vayikra (Leviticus) 21:13


  • 39        On the twice Daily Burnt, tamid, offerings. Bamidbar (Numbers) 28:3
  • 40        On Cohen haGadol’s (High Priest) twice daily meal offering. Vayikra (Leviticus) 6:20
  • 41        On the Shabbat additional, musaf, offering. Bamidbar (Numbers) 28:9
  • 42        On the New Moon, Rosh Chodesh, additional offering. Bamidbar (Numbers) 28:11
  • 43        On Pesach (Passover) additional offering. Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:36
  • 44        On the second day of Pesach (Passover) meal offering of the Omer (Counting). Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:15
  • 45        On Shavuot (Pentecost) additional, musaf, offering. Bamidbar (Numbers) 28:26
  • 46        On the Two Loaves of bread Wave offering on Shavuot (Pentecost). Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:17
  • 47        On Rosh HaShannah (Head of Year) additional offering. Bamidbar (Numbers) 29:1-2
  • 48        On Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) additional offering. Bamidbar (Numbers) 29:7-8
  • 49        On the service of Yom Kippur, Avodah. Vayikra (Leviticus) 16
  • 50        On Sukkot, musaf, offerings. Bamidbar (Numbers) 29:13
  • 51        On the Shemini Atzeret additional offering. Bamidbar (Numbers) 29:36
  • 52        On the three annual Festival pilgrimages to the Temple. Shemot (Exodus) 23:14
  • 53        On appearing before YHVH during the Festivals. Shemot (Exodus) 34:23
  • 54        On rejoicing on the Festivals. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 16:14
  • 55        On the 14th of Nisan slaughtering the Pesach (Passover) lamb. Shemot (Exodus) 12:6
  • 56        On eating the roasted Pesach (Passover) lamb night of Nisan 15th. Shemot (Exodus) 12:8
  • 57        On slaughtering the Pesach (Passover) Sheini, Iyyar 14th, offering. Bamidbar (Numbers) 9:11
  • 58        On eating the Pesach (Passover) Sheini lamb with Matzah and Maror. Bamidbar (Numbers) 9:11
  • 59        Trumpets for Feast sacrifices brought and for tribulation. Bamidbar (Numbers) 10:9-10
  • 60        On minimum age of cattle to be offered. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:27
  • 61        On offering only unblemished sacrifices. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:21
  • 62        On bringing salt with every offering. Vayikra (Leviticus) 2:13
  • 63        On the Burnt-Offering. Vayikra (Leviticus) 1:2
  • 64        On the Sin-Offering. Vayikra (Leviticus) 6:25
  • 65        On the Guilt-Offering. Vayikra (Leviticus) 7:1
  • 66        On the Peace-Offering. Vayikra (Leviticus) 3:1
  • 67        On the Meal-Offering. Vayikra (Leviticus) 2:1
  • 68        On offerings for a Court (Sanhedrin) that has erred. Vayikra (Leviticus) 4:13
  • 69        Fixed Sin-Offering, by one unknowingly breaking a commandment. Vayikra (Leviticus) 4:27
  • 70        Suspensive Guilt-Offering if doubt of breaking a commandment. Vayikra (Leviticus) 5:17
  • 71        Unconditional Guilt-Offering, for stealing, etc. Vayikra (Leviticus) 5:15
  • 72        Offering higher or lower value, according to ones means. Vayikra (Leviticus) 5:11
  • 73        To confess one’s sins before God and repent from them. Bamidbar (Numbers) 5:6-7
  • 74        On offering brought by a zav (man with a discharge). Vayikra (Leviticus) 15:13
  • 75        Offering brought by a zavah (woman with a discharge). Vayikra (Leviticus) 15:28
  • 76        On offering brought by a woman after childbirth. Vayikra (Leviticus) 12:6
  • 77        On offering brought by a leper after being cleansed. Vayikra (Leviticus) 14:10
  • 78        On the Tithe of one’s cattle. Vayikra (Leviticus) 27:32
  • 79        Sacrificing the First-born of clean (permitted) cattle. Shemot (Exodus) 13:2
  • 80        On Redeeming the First-born of man, Pidyon ha-ben. Shemot (Exodus) 22:29
  • 81        On Redeeming the firstling of an ass, if not… Shemot (Exodus) 34:20
  • 82        …breaking the neck of the firstling of an ass. Shemot (Exodus) 13:13
  • 83        On bringing due offerings to Jerusalem without delay. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:5
  • 84        All offerings must be brought only to the Sanctuary. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:14
  • 85        On offerings due from outside Israel to the Sanctuary. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:26
  • 86        On Redeeming blemished sanctified animal offerings. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:15
  • 87        On the holiness of substituted animal offerings. Vayikra (Leviticus) 27:33
  • 88        On Cohanim (Priests) eating the remainder of the Meal Offerings. Vayikra (Leviticus) 6:9
  • 89        On Cohanim (Priests) eating the meat of Sin and Guilt Offerings. Shemot (Exodus) 29:33
  • 90        Burn Consecrated Offerings that’ve become tameh/unclean. Vayikra (Leviticus) 7:19
  • 91        Burn remnant of Consecrated Offerings not eaten in time. Vayikra (Leviticus) 7:17


  • 92        The Nazirite letting his hair grow during his separation. Bamidbar (Numbers) 6:5
  • 93        Nazirite completing vow shaves his head and brings sacrifice. Bamidbar (Numbers) 6:18
  • 94        On that a man must honor his oral vows and oaths. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:21
  • 95        On that a judge can annul vows, only according to Torah. Bamidbar (Numbers) 30:8

Ritual Purity

  • 96        Defilement by touching certain animal carcasses, and… Vayikra (Leviticus) 11:8
  • 97        …by touching carcasses of eight creeping creatures. Vayikra (Leviticus) 11:29
  • 98        Defilement of food and drink, if contacting unclean thing. Vayikra (Leviticus) 11:34
  • 99        On Tumah (unclean) of a menstruant woman. Vayikra (Leviticus) 15:19
  • 100      On Tumah (unclean) of a woman after childbirth. Vayikra (Leviticus) 12:2
  • 101      On Tumah (unclean) of a leper. Vayikra (Leviticus) 13:3
  • 102      On garments contaminated by leprosy. Vayikra (Leviticus) 13:51
  • 103      On a leprous house. Vayikra (Leviticus) 14:44
  • 104      On Tumah (unclean) of a zav (man with a running issue). Vayikra (Leviticus) 15:2
  • 105      On Tumah (unclean) of semen. Vayikra (Leviticus) 15:6
  • 106      Tumah (unclean) of a zavah (woman suffering from a running issue). Vayikra (Leviticus) 15:19
  • 107      On Tumah (unclean) of a human corpse. Bamidbar (Numbers) 19:14
  • 108      Law of the purification water of sprinkling, mei niddah. Bamidbar (Numbers) 19:13
  • 109      On immersing in a mikveh to become ritually clean. Vayikra (Leviticus) 15:16
  • 110      On the specified procedure of cleansing from leprosy. Vayikra (Leviticus) 14:2
  • 111      On that a leper must shave his head. Vayikra (Leviticus) 14:9
  • 112      On that the leper must be made easily distinguishable. Vayikra (Leviticus) 13:45
  • 113      On Ashes of the Red Heifer, used in ritual purification. Bamidbar (Numbers) 19:2

Donations to the Temple

  • 114      On the valuation for a person himself to the Temple. Vayikra (Leviticus) 27:2
  • 115      On the valuation for an unclean beast to the Temple. Vayikra (Leviticus) 27:11
  • 116      On the valuation of a house as a donation to the Temple. Vayikra (Leviticus) 27:14
  • 117      On the valuation of a field as a donation to the Temple. Vayikra (Leviticus) 27:16
  • 118      If benefit from Temple property, restitution plus 1/5th. Vayikra (Leviticus) 5:16
  • 119      On the fruits of the trees fourth year’s growth. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:24
  • 120      On leaving the corners (Peah) of fields for the poor. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:9
  • 121      On leaving gleanings of the field for the poor. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:9
  • 122      On leaving the forgotten sheaf for the poor. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 24:19
  • 123      On leaving the misformed grape clusters for the poor. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:10
  • 124      On leaving grape gleanings for the poor. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:10
  • 125      On separating and bringing First-fruits to the Sanctuary. Shemot (Exodus) 23:19
  • 126      To separate the great Heave-offering (terumah). Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:4
  • 127      To set aside the first tithe to the Levites. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 14:29
  • 128      To set aside the second tithe, eaten only in Jerusalem. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 14:22
  • 129      On Levites’ giving tenth of their tithe to the Cohanim (High Priests). Bamidbar (Numbers) 18:26
  • 130      To set aside the poor-man’s tithe in 3rd and 6th year. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 14:28
  • 131      A declaration made when separating the various tithes. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 26:13
  • 132      A declaration made bringing First-fruits to the Temple. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 26:2
  • 133      On the first portion of the Challah given to the Cohen (Priest). Bamidbar (Numbers) 15:20

The Sabbatical Year

  • 134      On ownerless produce of the Sabbatical year (shemittah). Shemot (Exodus) 23:11
  • 135      On resting the land on the Sabbatical year. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:4
  • 136      On sanctifying the Jubilee (50th) year. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:10
  • 137      Blow Shofar on Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) in the Jubilee and slaves freed. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:9
  • 138      Reversion of the land to ancestral owners in Jubilee year. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:25
  • 139      On the redemption of a house within a year of the sale. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:24
  • 140      Counting and announcing the years till the Jubilee year. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:8
  • 141      All debts are annulled in the Sabbatical year, but… Devarim (Deuteronomy) 15:3
  • 142      …one may exact a debt owed by a foreigner. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 15:3

Concerning Animals for Consumption

  • 143      The Cohen’s (Priest’s) due in the slaughter of every clean animal. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:3
  • 144      On the first of the fleece to be given to the Cohen (Priest). Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:4
  • 145      (Cherem vow) one devoted thing to God, other to Cohanim (Priest). Vayikra (Leviticus) 27:21
  • 146      Slaughtering animals, according to Torah, before eating. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:21
  • 147      Covering with earth the blood of slain fowl and beast. Vayikra (Leviticus) 17:13
  • 148      On setting free the parent bird when taking the nest. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:7
  • 149      Searching for prescribed signs in beasts, for eating. Vayikra (Leviticus) 11:2
  • 150      Searching for the prescribed signs in birds, for eating. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 14:11
  • 151      Searching for prescribed signs in locusts, for eating. Vayikra (Leviticus) 11:21
  • 152      Searching for the prescribed signs in fish, for eating. Vayikra (Leviticus) 11:9


  • 153      Sanhedrin to sanctify New Moon, and reckon years and seasons. Shemot (Exodus) 12:2
  • 154      On resting on Shabbat. Shemot (Exodus) 23:12 –
  • 155      On declaring Shabbat holy at its onset and termination. Shemot (Exodus) 20:8
  • 156      On removal of chametz (leaven), on (Nisan 14th) Pesach (Passover). Shemot (Exodus) 12:15
  • 157      Tell of Shemot (Exodus) from Egypt 1st night Pesach (Passover), (Nisan 15th). Shemot (Exodus) 13:8
  • 158      On eating Matzah the first night of Pesach (Passover), (Nisan 15th). Shemot (Exodus)12:18
  • 159      On resting on the first day of Pesach (Passover). Shemot (Exodus) 12:16
  • 160      On resting on the seventh day of Pesach (Passover). Shemot (Exodus) 12:16
  • 161      Count the Omer (Counting) 49 days from day of first sheaf, Nisan 16. Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:15
  • 162      On resting on Shavuot (Pentecost). Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:21
  • 163      On resting on Rosh HaShannah (Head of Year). Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:24
  • 164      On fasting on Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement). Vayikra (Leviticus) 16:29
  • 165      On resting on Yom Kippur. Vayikra (Leviticus) 16:29
  • 166      On resting on the first day of Sukkot. Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:35
  • 167      On resting on (the 8th day) Shemini Atzeret. Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:36
  • 168      On dwelling in a Sukkah (Booths) for seven days. Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:42
  • 169      On taking a Lulav (the four species) on Sukkot. Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:40
  • 170      On hearing the sound of the Shofar on Rosh HaShannah (Head of Year). Bamidbar (Numbers) 29:1


  • 171      On every male giving half a shekel annually to Temple. Shemot (Exodus) 30:12
  • 172      On heeding the Prophets. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:15
  • 173      On appointing a king. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 17:15
  • 174      On obeying the Great Court (Sanhedrin). Devarim (Deuteronomy) 17:11
  • 175      On in case of division, abiding by a majority decision. Shemot (Exodus) 23:2
  • 176      Appointing Judges and Officers of the Court in every town. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 16:18
  • 177      Treating litigants equally / impartially before the law. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:15
  • 178      Anyone aware of evidence must come to court to testify. Vayikra (Leviticus) 5:1
  • 179      The testimony of witnesses shall be examined thoroughly. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 13:14
  • 180      False witnesses punished, as they intended upon accused. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 19:19
  • 181      On Eglah Arufah, on the heifer when murderer unknown. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 21:4
  • 182      On establishing Six Cities of Refuge. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 19:3
  • 183      Give cities to Levites – who’ve no ancestral land share. Bamidbar (Numbers) 35:2
  • 184      Build fence on roof, remove potential hazards from home. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:8


  • 185      On destroying all idolatry and its appurtenances. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:2
  • 186      The law about a city that has become apostate / perverted. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 13:16
  • 187      On the law about destroying the seven Canaanite nations. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 20:17
  • 188      On the extinction of the seed of Amalek. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 25:19
  • 189      On remembering the evil deeds of Amalek to Israel. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 25:17


  • 190      Regulations for wars other than ones commanded in Torah. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 20:11
  • 191      Cohen for special duties in war. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 20:2
  • 192      Prepare place beyond the camp, so to keep sanitary and… Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:14
  • 193      …so include a digging tool among war implements. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:13


  • 194      On a robber to restore the stolen article to its owner. Vayikra (Leviticus) 6:4
  • 195      On to give charity to the poor. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 15:8
  • 196      On giving gifts to a Hebrew bondman upon his freedom. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 15:14
  • 197      On lending money to the poor without interest. Shemot (Exodus) 22:25
  • 198      On lending money to the foreigner with interest. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:20
  • 199      On restoring a pledge to its owner if he needs it. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 24:13
  • 200      On paying the worker his wages on time. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 24:15
  • 201      Employee is allowed to eat the produce he’s working in. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:24
  • 202      On helping unload when necessary a tired animal. Shemot (Exodus) 23:5
  • 203      On assisting a man loading his beast with its burden. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:4
  • 204      On that lost property must be returned to its owner. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:1
  • 205      On being required to reprove the sinner. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:17
  • 206      On love your neighbor as yourself. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:18
  • 207      On being commanded to love the convert / proselyte. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 10:19
  • 208      On the law of accurate weights and measures. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:36


  • 209      On honoring the old (and wise). Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:32
  • 210      On honoring parents. Shemot (Exodus) 20:12
  • 211      On fearing parents. Vayikra (Leviticus)19:3
  • 212      On to be fruitful and multiply. Bereshit (Genesis)1:28
  • 213      On the law of marriage. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 24:1
  • 214      On bridegroom devotes himself to his wife for one year. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 24:5
  • 215      On circumcising one’s son. Bereshit (Genesis)17:10
  • 216      If a man dies childless his brother marry widow, or… Devarim (Deuteronomy) 25:5
  • 217      …release her / the-widow Chalitzah. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 25:9
  • 218      A violator must marry the virgin / maiden he has violated. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:29
  • 219      The defamer of his bride is flogged and may never divorce. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:18
  • 220      On the seducer must be punished according to the law. Shemot (Exodus) 22:16
  • 221      Captive women treated according to special regulations. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 21:11
  • 222      The law of divorce, only be means of written document. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 24:1
  • 223      Suspected adulteress has to submit to the required test. Bamidbar (Numbers) 5:15


  • 224      On whipping transgressors of certain commandments. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 25:2
  • 225      On exile to city of refuge for unintentional homicide. Bamidbar (Numbers) 35:25
  • 226      On punishment of transgressors of certain commandments. Shemot (Exodus) 21:20
  • 227      On strangling transgressors of certain commandments. Shemot (Exodus) 21:16
  • 228      On burning transgressors of certain commandments. Vayikra (Leviticus) 20:14
  • 229      On stoning transgressors of certain commandments. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:24
  • 230      Hang after execution, violators of certain commandments. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 21:22
  • 231      On burial on the same day of execution. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 21:23


  • 232      On the special laws for treating the Hebrew bondman. Shemot (Exodus) 21:2
  • 233      Hebrew bondmaid married to her master or his son, or… Shemot (Exodus) 21:8, 9
  • 234      …allow the redemption to the Hebrew bondmaid. Shemot (Exodus) 21:9
  • 235      On the laws for treating an alien bondman. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:46


  • 236      On the penalty for a person inflicting injury. Shemot (Exodus) 21:19
  • 237      On the law of injuries caused by an animal. Shemot (Exodus) 21:28
  • 238      On the law of injuries caused by an pit. Shemot (Exodus) 21:33
  • 239      On the law of punishment of thieves. Shemot (Exodus) 22:1
  • 240      On the law of a judgement for damage caused by a beast. Shemot (Exodus) 22:5
  • 241      On the law of a judgement for damage caused by a fire. Shemot (Exodus) 22:6
  • 242      On the law of an unpaid guardian. Shemot (Exodus) 22:7
  • 243      On the law of a paid guardian. Shemot (Exodus) 22:11
  • 244      On the law of a borrower. Shemot (Exodus) 22:14
  • 245      On the law of buying and selling. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:14
  • 246      On the law of litigants. Shemot (Exodus) 22:9
  • 247      Save life of one pursued. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 25:1
  • 248      On the law of inheritance. Bamidbar (Numbers) 27:8

The 365 Negative Mitzvot: “The Don’ts”

Idolatry and Related Practices

  • 1          No other gods before me. Shemot (Exodus) 20:3
  • 2          Not to make graven images. Shemot (Exodus) 20:4
  • 3          Not to make an idol (even for others) to worship. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:4
  • 4          Not to make figures of human beings. Shemot (Exodus) 20:4
  • 5          Not to bow down to an idol. Shemot (Exodus) 20:5
  • 6          Not to serve idols. Shemot (Exodus) 20:5
  • 7          Not to hand over any children to Molech. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:21
  • 8          Not to seek after wizards. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:31
  • 9          Not to regard them that have familiar spirits. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:31
  • 10        Not to study idolatrous practices. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:4
  • 11        Not to erect an image which people assemble to honor. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 16:22
  • 12        No figured stones to bow down to. Vayikra (Leviticus) 26:1
  • 13        Not to plant trees near the altar. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 16:21
  • 14        Make no mention of other gods. Shemot (Exodus) 23:13
  • 15        Not to divert anyone to idolatry. Shemot (Exodus) 23:13
  • 16        Not to try to persuade a Jew to worship idols. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 13:12, 13
  • 17        Not to love someone who seeks to mislead you to idols. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 13:8
  • 18        Not to relax one’s aversion to the misleader to idols. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 13:9
  • 19        Not to save the life of a misleader to idols. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 13:9
  • 20        Not to plead for (defend) the misleader to idols. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 13:9
  • 21        Not to oppress evidence unfavorable to the misleader. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 13:9
  • 22        No benefit from ornaments which have adorned an idol. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 7:25
  • 23        Rebuild not a city destroyed as punishment for idolatry. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 13:16
  • 24        Not deriving benefit from property of an apostate city. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 13:17
  • 25        Do not use anything connected with idols or idolatry. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 7:26
  • 26        Not prophesying in the name of idols. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:20
  • 27        Not prophesying falsely in the Name of God. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:20
  • 28        Listen not to one who prophesies in the name of idols. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 13:3
  • 29        Not fearing or refraining from killing a false prophet. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:20
  • 30        Imitate not the ways nor practice customs of idolaters. Vayikra (Leviticus) 20:23
  • 31        Not practicing divination (Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:10). Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:26
  • 32        Not practicing soothsaying. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:10
  • 33        Not practicing enchanting. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:10
  • 34        Not practicing sorcery. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:10
  • 35        Not practicing the art of the charmer. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:11
  • 36        Not consulting a necromancer. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:10
  • 37        Not consulting a sorcerer. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:11
  • 38        Not to seek information from the dead, necromancy. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:11
  • 39        Women not to wear men’s clothes or adornments. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:5
  • 40        Men not wearing women’s clothes or adornments. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:5
  • 41        Not tattoo yourself, as is the manner of the idolaters. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:28
  • 42        Not wearing a mixture of wool and linen. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:11
  • 43        Not shaving the temples or sides of your head. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:27
  • 44        Not shaving the corners of your beard. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:27
  • 45        Not making cuttings in your flesh over your dead. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:28

Prohibitions Resulting from Historical Events

  • 46        Not returning to Egypt to dwell there permanently. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 17:16
  • 47        Not to follow one’s heart or eyes, straying to impurity. Bamidbar (Numbers) 15:39
  • 48        Not to make a pact with the Seven Canaanite Nations. Shemot (Exodus) 23:32
  • 49        Not to spare the life of the Seven Canaanite Nations. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 20:16
  • 50        Not to show mercy to idolaters. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 7:2
  • 51        No one serving false gods to settle in the Land of Israel. Shemot (Exodus) 23:33
  • 52        Not to intermarry with one serving false gods. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 7:3
  • 53        Not to enter the congregation, an Ammonite or Moabite. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:3
  • 54        Exclude not marrying a descendant of Esau if a proselyte. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:8
  • 55        Not to exclude marrying an Egyptian who is a proselyte. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:8
  • 56        Not permitted to make peace with Ammon and Moab nations. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:6
  • 57        Not destroying fruit trees, even in time of war. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 20:19
  • 58        Not fearing the enemy in time of war. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 7:21
  • 59        Blot out the remembrance of Amalek. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 25:19


  • 60        Not blaspheming the Holy Name of God. Vayikra (Leviticus) 24:16
  • 61        Not violating an oath by the Holy Name. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:12
  • 62        Not taking the Holy Name in vain. Shemot (Exodus) 20:7
  • 63        Not profaning the Holy Name of God. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:32
  • 64        Not tempting God’s promises and warnings. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 6:16
  • 65        Do not destroy houses of worship or holy books of HaShem. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:3,4
  • 66        Leave not body of executed criminal hanging overnight. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 21:23


  • 67        Be not lax in guarding the Sanctuary. Bamidbar (Numbers) 18:5
  • 68        High Priest enter Sanctuary only at prescribed times. Vayikra (Leviticus) 16:2
  • 69        Cohen (priest) with blemish come near to Altar. Vayikra (Leviticus) 21:23
  • 70        Cohen (priest) with a blemish not to minister in the Sanctuary. Vayikra (Leviticus) 21:17
  • 71        Cohen (priest) with temporary blemish minister not in Sanctuary. Vayikra (Leviticus) 21:18
  • 72        Levites and Cohanim not to interchange in their functions. Bamidbar (Numbers) 18:3
  • 73        Drunk persons may not enter Sanctuary or teach Torah. Vayikra (Leviticus) 10:9
  • 74        A non-Cohen (priest) not to minister in Sanctuary. Bamidbar (Numbers) 18:4
  • 75        A unclean Cohen (priest) not to minister in Sanctuary. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:2
  • 76        A defiled Cohen (priest), not to minister in Sanctuary. Vayikra (Leviticus) 21:6
  • 77        A leper not to enter any part of Temple. Bamidbar (Numbers) 5:2
  • 78        No unclean person may enter camp of Levites. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:11
  • 79        Build not an Altar of stones which were touched by iron. Shemot (Exodus) 20:25
  • 80        Not to have an ascent to the Altar by steps. Shemot (Exodus) 20:26
  • 81        Not to extinguish the Altar fire. Vayikra (Leviticus) 6:13
  • 82        Offer nothing, but specified incense, on Golden Altar. Shemot (Exodus) 30:9
  • 83        Not to make any oil the same as the Oil of Anointment. Shemot (Exodus) 30:32
  • 84        Anoint none with special oil except Cohen Gadol (High Priest) and King. Shemot (Exodus) 30:32
  • 85        Not to make incense same as burnt on Altar in Sanctuary. Shemot (Exodus) 30:37
  • 86        Not to remove the staves from their rings in the Ark. Shemot (Exodus) 25:15
  • 87        Not to remove the Breastplate from the Ephod. Shemot (Exodus) 28:28
  • 88        Make not any incision in Cohen haGadol’s (High Priest’s) upper garment. Shemot (Exodus) 28:32


  • 89        Offer not sacrifices outside Sanctuary (Temple) Court. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:13
  • 90        Slaughter not consecrated animals outside Temple Court. Vayikra (Leviticus) 17:3-4
  • 91        Dedicate not a blemished animal to be offered on Altar. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:20
  • 92        Not to slaughter a blemished animal as a korban (sacrifice). Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:22
  • 93        Not to dash the blood of a blemished beast on the Altar. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:24
  • 94        Not to burn the inner parts of blemished beast on Altar. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:22
  • 95        Not to sacrifice a beast with a temporary blemish. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 17:1
  • 96        Not to offer a blemished sacrifice of a gentile. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:25
  • 97        Not to cause a consecrated offering to become blemished. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:21
  • 98        Not to offer leaven or honey upon the Altar. Vayikra (Leviticus) 2:11
  • 99        Not to offer a sacrifice without salt. Vayikra (Leviticus) 2:13
  • 100      Offer not on Altar: “hire of harlot” or “price of dog”. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:18
  • 101      Not to slaughter an animal and its young on the same day. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:28
  • 102      Not to put olive oil on the sin meal-offering. Vayikra (Leviticus) 5:11
  • 103      Not to put frankincense on the sin meal-offering. Vayikra (Leviticus) 5:11
  • 104      Not to put olive oil on the jealousy offering. Bamidbar (Numbers) 5:15
  • 105      Not to put frankincense on the jealousy offering. Bamidbar (Numbers) 5:15
  • 106      Not to substitute sacrifices. Vayikra (Leviticus) 27:10
  • 107      Redeem not the firstborn of permitted (clean) animals. Bamidbar (Numbers) 18:17
  • 108      Not to change sacrifices from one category to the other. Vayikra (Leviticus) 27:33
  • 109      Not to sell the tithe of the herd of cattle. Vayikra (Leviticus) 27:33
  • 110      Not to sell a devoted field. Vayikra (Leviticus) 27:28
  • 111      Not to redeem a devoted (by the Cherem vow) field. Vayikra (Leviticus) 27:28
  • 112      Not to split head of bird slaughtered for Sin-offering. Vayikra (Leviticus) 5:8
  • 113      Not to do any work with a dedicated beast. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 15:19
  • 114      Not to shear a dedicated beast. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 15:19
  • 115      Slaughter not Pesach (Passover) lamb with chametz (leaven). Shemot (Exodus) 34:25
  • 116      Leave not sacrificial portions of Pesach (Passover) lamb overnight. Shemot (Exodus) 12:10
  • 117      Allow not meat of Pesach (Passover) lamb to remain till morning. Shemot (Exodus) 12:10
  • 118      No meat of Nisan 14th Festive Offering remain till day 3. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 16:4
  • 119      No meat of 2nd Pesach (Passover) lamb Offering remain till morning. Bamidbar (Numbers) 9:12
  • 120      No meat of Thanksgiving Offering to remain till morning. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:30
  • 121      Not to break any bones of Pesach (Passover) lamb offering. Shemot (Exodus) 12:46
  • 122      Not to break any bones of 2nd Pesach (Passover) lamb offering. Bamidbar (Numbers) 9:12
  • 123      Not to remove Pesach (Passover) offering from where it is eaten. Shemot (Exodus) 12:46
  • 124      Not to bake the residue of a meal offering with leaven Vayikra (Leviticus) 6:17
  • 125      Not to eat the Pesach (Passover) offering boiled or raw. Shemot (Exodus) 12:9
  • 126      Not to allow an alien resident to eat Pesach (Passover) offering. Shemot (Exodus) 12:45
  • 127      An uncircumcised person may not eat the Pesach (Passover) offering. Shemot (Exodus) 12:48
  • 128      Not to allow an stranger to eat the Pesach (Passover) offering. Shemot (Exodus) 12:43
  • 129      Tameh (ritually unclean) person may not eat holy things. Vayikra (Leviticus) 12:4
  • 130      Eat not meat of consecrated things that have become unclean. Vayikra (Leviticus) 7:19
  • 131      Not to eat sacrificial meat beyond the second day. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:6,7
  • 132      Eat not sacrificial meat on third day. Vayikra (Leviticus) 7:18
  • 133      A stranger or non-Cohen may not eat of holy thing. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:10
  • 134      A Cohen ‘s (Priest’s) sojourner or hired worker may not eat holy thing. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:10
  • 135      An uncircumcised person may not eat holy thing. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:10
  • 136      A Tameh (ritually unclean) Cohen may not eat terumah (holy things). Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:4
  • 137      A Bat-Cohen (priest’s daughter) if married to non-Cohen not to eat holy food. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:12
  • 138      Not to eat the Meal-offering of a Cohen (Priest). Vayikra (Leviticus) 6:16
  • 139      Eat not Sin-offering meat sacrificed within Sanctuary. Vayikra (Leviticus) 6:23
  • 140      Not to eat consecrated animals that have become blemished. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 14:3
  • 141      Eat not unredeemed 2nd corn tithe outside Jerusalem. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:17
  • 142      Consume not unredeemed 2nd wine tithe outside Jerusalem. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:17
  • 143      Consume not unredeemed 2nd oil tithe outside Jerusalem. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:17
  • 144      Eat not an unblemished firstling outside Jerusalem. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:17
  • 145      Eat not sin or guilt offerings outside Sanctuary court. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:17
  • 146      Not to eat the meat of the burnt offering at all. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:17
  • 147      Eat not lesser sacrifices before blood dashed on Altar. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:17
  • 148      Azar / non- Cohen is not to eat the most holy offerings. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:17
  • 149      A Cohen (Priest) not to eat First Fruits outside Temple courts. Shemot (Exodus) 29:33
  • 150      Not giving 2nd tithe while in state of impurity. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 26:14
  • 151      Not eating the 2nd tithe while in mourning. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 26:14
  • 152      Not giving the 2nd tithe for the dead. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 26:14
  • 153      Not eating untithed produce. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:15
  • 154      Not changing the order of separating the various tithes. Shemot (Exodus) 22:29
  • 155      Delay not payment of offerings, freewill or obligatory. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:21
  • 156      Go not to Temple on Passover, Pentecost and Tabernacles without offering. Shemot (Exodus) 23:15
  • 157      Not to break your word, even if without an oath. Bamidbar (Numbers) 30:2


  • 158      A Cohen (Priest) may not marry a harlot. Vayikra (Leviticus) 21:7
  • 159      A Cohen (Priest) marry not a woman profaned from the Priesthood. Vayikra (Leviticus) 21:7
  • 160      A Cohen (Priest) may not marry a divorcee. Vayikra (Leviticus) 21:7
  • 161      Cohen haGadol (high priest) may not marry a widow. Vayikra (Leviticus) 21:14
  • 162      Cohen haGadol (high priest) may not take a widow as a concubine. Vayikra (Leviticus) 21:15
  • 163      Cohen (Priest) may not enter the Sanctuary with uncovered head. Vayikra (Leviticus) 10:6
  • 164      Cohen (Priest) wearing rent garments may not enter Sanctuary. Vayikra (Leviticus) 10:6
  • 165      Cohanim (Priests) leave not Temple courtyard during the service. Vayikra (Leviticus) 10:7
  • 166      No Cohanim (Priests) must not be defiled for dead, except for his next of kin. Vayikra (Leviticus) 21:1
  • 167      Cohen haGadol (High Priest) may not be under one roof with dead body. Vayikra (Leviticus) 21:11
  • 168      Cohen haGadol (High Priest) must not be defiled for any dead person. Vayikra (Leviticus) 21:11
  • 169      Levites have not part in the division of Israel’s land. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:1
  • 170      Levites share not in the spoils of war. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:1
  • 171      Not to tear out hair for the dead. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 14:1

Dietary Laws

  • 172      Not to eat any unclean animal. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 14:7
  • 173      Not to eat any unclean fish. Vayikra (Leviticus) 11:11
  • 174      Not to eat any unclean fowl. Vayikra (Leviticus) 11:13
  • 175      Not to eat any creeping winged insect. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 14:19
  • 176      Not to eat anything which creeps on the earth. Vayikra (Leviticus) 11:41
  • 177      Not to eat creeping thing that is undefiled. Vayikra (Leviticus) 11:44
  • 178      Not to eat living creatures that goeth on belly. Vayikra (Leviticus) 11:42
  • 179      Not to eat any abominable creature. Vayikra (Leviticus) 11:43
  • 180      Not to eat any animal which died naturally, a nevelah. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 14:21
  • 181      Not to eat an animal which is torn or mauled, a treifah. Shemot (Exodus) 22:31
  • 182      Not to eat any limb taken from a living animal. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:23
  • 183      Not to eat the sinew of the thigh-vein, (gid ha-nasheh). Bereshit (Genesis) 32:32
  • 184      Not to eat blood. Vayikra (Leviticus) 7:26
  • 185      Not to eat certain types of fat of clean animal, chelev. Vayikra (Leviticus) 7:23
  • 186      Not to boil young male goat (meat) in its mother’s milk. Shemot (Exodus) 23:19
  • 187      Not to eat young male goat cooked in its mother’s milk. Shemot (Exodus) 34:26
  • 188      Not to eat the flesh of a condemned and to be stoned ox. Shemot (Exodus) 21:28
  • 189      Eat not bread made from grain of new crop, before bringing an offering. Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:14
  • 190      Eat not roasted grain of new crop, before bringing an offering. Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:14
  • 191      Eat not green ears of new crop, before bringing an offering. Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:14
  • 192      Not to eat of the fruit of trees till the forth year, orlah. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:23
  • 193      Eat not growth of mixed vineyard planting, kilai hakerem. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:9
  • 194      Not to use wine libations for idols, yayin nesach. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 32:38
  • 195      No eating or drinking to excess, gluttony and drunkenness. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 21:20
  • 196      Not to eat anything on Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement). Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:29
  • 197      Not to eat chametz, leaven, on Pesach (Passover). Shemot (Exodus) 13:3
  • 198      Not to eat an admixture of chametz / leaven on Pesach (Passover). Shemot (Exodus) 13:7
  • 199      Not to eat chametz / leaven, after noon of 14th Nisan. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 16:3
  • 200      No chametz / leaven may be seen in our homes during Pesach (Passover). Shemot (Exodus) 13:7
  • 201      Not to possess chametz / leaven, during Pesach (Passover). Shemot (Exodus) 12:19


  • 202      A Nazirite may not drink wine or any beverage from grapes. Bamidbar (Numbers) 6:3
  • 203      A Nazirite may not eat fresh grapes. Bamidbar (Numbers) 6:3
  • 204      A Nazirite may not eat dried grapes. Bamidbar (Numbers) 6:3
  • 205      A Nazirite may not eat grape seeds / kernels. Bamidbar (Numbers) 6:4
  • 206      A Nazirite may not eat grape peels / husks. Bamidbar (Numbers) 6:4
  • 207      Nazirite may not rend himself tameh (unclean) for the dead. Bamidbar (Numbers) 6:7
  • 208      Nazirite must not become tameh entering house with corpse. Vayikra (Leviticus) 21:11
  • 209      A Nazirite must not shave his hair. Bamidbar (Numbers) 6:5


  • 210      Reap not a whole field without leaving corners for poor. Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:22
  • 211      Not to gather ears of grain that fell during harvesting. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:9
  • 212      Not to gather the misformed clusters of grapes. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:10
  • 213      Not to gather single fallen grapes during the vintage. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:10
  • 214      Not to return for a forgotten sheaf. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 24:19
  • 215      Not to sow diverse kinds of seed in one field, kalayim. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:19
  • 216      Not to sow grain or vegetables in a vineyard. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:9
  • 217      Not to crossbreed animals of different species. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:19
  • 218      Work not with two different kinds of animals together. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:10
  • 219      Muzzle not animal working field to prevent from eating. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 25:4
  • 220      Not to cultivate the soil in the 7th year, shemittah. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:4
  • 221      Not to prune the trees in the 7th year. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:4
  • 222      Reap not self-grown plant in 7th year as ordinary year. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:5
  • 223      Gather not self-grown fruit in 7th year as ordinary year. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:5
  • 224      Not to till the earth or prune trees in Jubilee year. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:11
  • 225      Reap not after-growths of Jubilee year as ordinary year. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:11
  • 226      Not to gather fruit in Jubilee year as in ordinary year. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:11
  • 227      Sell not one’s Eretz Yisrael land holdings permanently. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:23
  • 228      Not to sell / change the open lands of the Levites. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:33
  • 229      Not to leave the Levites without support. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:19

Loans, Business, and the Treatment of Slaves

  • 230      Not to demand payment of debts after 7th year Shmitah. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 15:2
  • 231      Not to refuse loan to poor because 7th year Shmitah is near. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 15:9
  • 232      Not to deny charity to the poor. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 15:7
  • 233      Not sending a Hebrew bondman away empty-handed. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 15:13
  • 234      Not demanding payment from a debtor known unable to pay. Shemot (Exodus) 22:25
  • 235      Not lending to another person at interest. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:37
  • 236      Not borrowing from another person at interest. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:20
  • 237      Not participating in an agreement involving interest. Shemot (Exodus) 22:25
  • 238      Oppress not an employee by delaying paying his wages. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:13
  • 239      Not taking a pledge from a debtor by force. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 24:10
  • 240      Not keeping a poor man’s pledge when he needs it. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 24:12
  • 241      Not taking any pledge from a widow. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 24:17
  • 242      Not taking one’s business utensils in pledge. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 24:6
  • 243      Not abducting a person. Shemot (Exodus) 20:13
  • 244      Not stealing. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:11
  • 245      Not robbing. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:13
  • 246      Not fraudulently altering land boundaries / landmarker. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 19:14
  • 247      Not usurping our debts and do not defraud. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:13
  • 248      Not repudiating debts, denying receipt of loan / deposit. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:11
  • 249      Not to swear falsely regarding another man’s property. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:11
  • 250      Not wronging / deceiving one another in business. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:14
  • 251      Not wronging / misleading one another even verbally. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:17
  • 252      Not harming the stranger among you verbally. Shemot (Exodus) 22:21
  • 253      Not injuring the stranger among you in business / trade. Shemot (Exodus) 22:21
  • 254      Not handing over a slave who’s fled to Israel. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:15
  • 255      Take no advantage of a slave who’s fled to Israel. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:16
  • 256      Not afflicting the orphans and widows. Shemot (Exodus) 22:22
  • 257      Not employing a Hebrew bondman in degrading tasks. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:39
  • 258      Not selling a Hebrew bondman. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:42
  • 259      Not treating a Hebrew bondman cruelly. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:43
  • 260      Not allowing a heathen to mistreat a Hebrew bondman. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:53
  • 261      Not selling a Hebrew maidservant. and if you marry her… Shemot (Exodus) 21:8
  • …withhold not: food, raiment, or conjugal rights. Shemot (Exodus) 21:10
  • 263      Not selling a captive woman. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 21:14
  • 264      Not treating a captive woman as a slave. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 21:14
  • 265      Not coveting another man’s possessions or property, etc. Shemot (Exodus) 20:17
  • 266      Covet not another’s possessions, even the desire forbidden. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 5:21
  • 267      A worker is not to cut down standing grain during work. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:25
  • 268      A hired laborer not to take more fruit than he can eat. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:24
  • 269      Not ignoring lost property to be returned to its owner. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:3
  • 270      Refuse not to help man or animal collapsing with burden. Shemot (Exodus) 23:5
  • 271      Not cheating or defrauding with measurements and weights. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:35
  • 272      Not to possess false or inaccurate weights and measures. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 25:13


  • 273      A Judge is not to commit unrighteousness. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:15
  • 274      A Judge is not to accept bribes / gifts from litigants. Shemot (Exodus) 23:8
  • 275      A Judge is not to favor (be partial to) a litigant. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:15
  • 276      Judge not avoid justice being in fear of wicked person. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 1:17
  • 277      A Judge not to decide in favor of poor man, out of pity. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:15
  • 278      A Judge is not to discriminate against the poor. Shemot (Exodus) 23:6
  • 279      Judge not to pity one who killed or caused loss of limb. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 19:13
  • 280      A Judge not perverting justice due strangers or orphans. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 24:17
  • 281      Judge not to hear one litigant in absence of the other. Shemot (Exodus) 23:1
  • 282      Court may not convict by majority of one in capital case. Shemot (Exodus) 23:2
  • 283      Judge accept not colleague’s opinion, unless sure right. Shemot (Exodus) 23:2
  • 284      Not appointing an unlearned judge ignorant of the Torah. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 1:17
  • 285      Not bearing false witness. Shemot (Exodus) 20:16
  • 286      A Judge is not to receive a wicked man’s testimony. Shemot (Exodus) 23:1
  • 287      A Judge receive not testimony from litigant’s relatives. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 24:16
  • 288      Not convicting on the testimony of a single witness. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 19:15
  • 289      Not murdering a human being. Shemot (Exodus) 20:13
  • 290      No conviction based on circumstantial evidence alone. Shemot (Exodus) 23:7
  • 291      A witness must not sit as a Judge in capital cases. Bamidbar (Numbers) 35:30
  • 292      Not killing a murderer without trial and conviction. Bamidbar (Numbers) 35:12
  • 293      Not to pity or spare the life of a pursuer. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 25:12
  • 294      Not punishing a person for a sin committed under duress. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:26
  • 295      Not accepting ransom from an unwitting murderer. Bamidbar (Numbers) 35:31
  • 296      Not accepting a ransom from a wilful murderer. Bamidbar (Numbers) 35:32
  • 297      Hesitate not to save life of another person in danger. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:16
  • 298      Not leaving obstacles on public or private domain. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:8
  • 299      Not misleading another by giving wrong advice. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:14
  • 300      Inflict not more than assigned number lashes to guilty. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 25:2, 3
  • 301      Not to tell tales. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:16
  • 302      Not to bear hatred in your heart toward your brethren. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:17
  • 303      Not to put one another to shame. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:17
  • 304      Not to take vengeance on another. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:18
  • 305      Not to bear a grudge. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:18
  • 306      Not to take entire bird’s nest, mother and her young. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:6
  • 307      Not to shave a leprous scall. Vayikra (Leviticus) 13:33
  • 308      Not to cut or cauterize (remove) other signs of leprosy. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 24:8
  • 309      Plow not a valley where slain body found, eglah arufah. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 21:
  • 310      Not permitting a witch / sorcerer to live. Shemot (Exodus) 22:18
  • 311      Take not bridegroom from home in first year of marriage. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 24:5
  • 312      Not to differ from or disobey the Cohanim and the Judge. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 17:11
  • 313      Not to add to the Mitzvot / commandments of Torah. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:32
  • 314      Not to detract from the Mitzvot / commandments of Torah. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:32
  • 315      Not to curse a judge. Shemot (Exodus) 22:28
  • 316      Not to curse a ruler. Shemot (Exodus) 22:28
  • 317      Not to curse any person. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:14
  • 318      Not cursing parents. Shemot (Exodus) 21:17
  • 319      Not to strike parents. Shemot (Exodus) 21:15
  • 320      Not to work on Shabbat. Shemot (Exodus) 20:10
  • 321      Not to walk beyond permitted limits, eruv, on Shabbat. Shemot (Exodus) 16:29
  • 322      Not to inflict punishment on the Shabbat. Shemot (Exodus) 35:3
  • 323      Not to work on the first day of Pesach (Passover). Shemot (Exodus) 12:16
  • 324      Not to work on the seventh day of Pesach (Passover). Shemot (Exodus) 12:16
  • 325      Not to work on Shavuot (Pentecost). Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:21
  • 326      Not to work on Rosh HaShannah (Head of Year). Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:25
  • 327      Not to work on the first day of Sukkot (Booths). Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:35
  • 328      Work not 8th-day / Shemini-Atzeret, (after Hoshana Rabba). Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:36
  • 329      Not to work on Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement). Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:28

Incest and Other Forbidden Relationships

  • 330      No relations with one’s mother. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:7
  • 331      No relations with one’s father’s wife. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:8
  • 332      No relations with one’s sister. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:9
  • 333      No relations with step-sister. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:11
  • 334      No relations with one’s son’s daughter. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:10
  • 335      No relations with one’s daughter’s daughter. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:10
  • 336      No relations with one’s daughter. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:10
  • 337      No relations with a woman and her daughter. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:17
  • 338      No relations with a woman and her son’s daughter. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:17
  • 339      No relations with a woman and her daughter’s daughter. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:17
  • 340      No relations with one’s father’s sister. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:12
  • 341      No relations with one’s mother’s sister. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:13
  • 342      No relations with wife of father’s brother. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:14
  • 343      No relations with one’s son’s wife. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:15
  • 344      No relations with brother’s wife. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:16
  • 345      No relations with sister of wife, during wife’s life. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:18
  • 346      No relations with a menstruant. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:19
  • 347      No relations with another man’s wife. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:20
  • 348      Men may not lie with beasts. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:23
  • 349      Women may not lie with beasts. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:23
  • 350      A man may not lie carnally with another man. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:22
  • 351      A man may not lie carnally with his father. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:7
  • 352      A man may not lie carnally with his father’s brother. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:14
  • 353      Not to be intimate with a kinswoman. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:6
  • 354      A mamzer may not have relations with a Jewess. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:2
  • 355      No relations (harlotry) with a woman outside marriage. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:17
  • 356      Remarry not your divorced wife after she has remarried. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 24:4
  • 357      Childless widow marry none except late husbands brother. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 25:5
  • 358      Divorce not wife, that he has to marry after raping her. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:29
  • 359      Divorce not wife, after falsely slandering her. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:19
  • 360      Man unable of procreation (eunuch) not to marry Jewess. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:1
  • 361      Not to castrate a man or beast. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:24

The Monarchy

  • 362      Not appointing a king who is not of the seed of Israel. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 17:15
  • 363      A king not to accumulate an excess number of horses. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 17:16
  • 364      A king not taking many wives. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 17:17
  • 365      A king may not amass great personal wealth. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 17:17


Click here for another list of the 613 commandments.

[1] 1 Cor. 13:13

[2] 1 Jn. 4:16

[3] Literally in Hebrew: the Ten Words (Utterances or Sayings)

[4] Don’t let the 5th commandment (to honor your father and mother) throw you off. The Sages teach that this commandment is indeed teaching one how to love Adonai as one’s parents are “co-creators” with HaShem to produce you. Moreover, their authority in your life is a picture of the relationship you should have with Adonai. So, after considering the role that parents play in the life of a child, it becomes clear that the 5th commandment does in fact deal with loving the LORD. “Speak to all the congregation of the sons of Israel and say to them, ‘You shall be holy, for I the LORD your God am holy. ‘Every one of you shall reverence his mother and his father, and you shall keep My sabbaths; I am the LORD your God. (Lev. 19:2-3, see also Mark 7:9-13)

[5] There are those that count over a thousand “commandments” in the Brit Chadashah (New Testament)!

[6] Strong’s H8451; also be sure to look up the Hebrew root: H3384.

[7] “So keep and do them, for that is your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the peoples who will hear all these statutes and say, ‘Surely this great nation is a wise and understanding people.’ “For what great nation is there that has a god so near to it as is the LORD our God whenever we call on Him? “Or what great nation is there that has statutes and judgments as righteous as this whole law (Torah) which I am setting before you today?

(Dt. 4:6-8)

[8] For if anyone is a hearer of the word and not a doer, he is like a man who looks at his natural face in a mirror; for once he has looked at himself and gone away, he has immediately forgotten what kind of person he was. But one who looks intently at the perfect law, the law of liberty, and abides by it, not having become a forgetful hearer but an effectual doer, this man will be blessed in what he does. (James 1:23-25ff)

[9] I first heard this great analogy from one of the many gifted teachers at Lamb Fellowship. Sadly, I cannot remember which one, though I believe it was Travis Berry. Whoever it was, I thank you for presenting this in such a simple yet profound manner. It certainly has stuck with me. (:

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