Posts Tagged With: Torah

The Biblical Role of Women Part IX


Role of Women Main Page

Builder or Destroyer?

In Part VIII, we looked at how men are the strong foundation of the House, but our focus was on women as “builders”. A woman builds with the Holy Spirit of Binah or understanding –discernment. (Is. 11:2) She builds upon the firm foundation of the Word, the Son of Man, and her husband. Once again, here is the Proverb’s verse that speaks to this:

The wise woman builds her house, But the foolish tears it down with her own hands. (Pr. 14:1)

Before we look at the first builders of the Torah and the Gospel, I would be remiss if I didn’t deal with the second half of this verse in Proverbs. If a woman is not a builder of the house, she can only be one other thing — a fool that “tears the house down with her own hands”. I’ve mentioned the duality found in the female before. Dr. Alewine deals with this concept extensively in her Creation Gospel workbooks.

In the Bible, we are often faced with two women, one righteous and one wicked. A Bride and a Harlot. The problem is that as humans, we have a difficult time discerning which is which. These women are easy to confuse if we are ignorant of the written Word, are immature in the faith, or if we operate in pride. (That latter one is nearly inescapable; we must diligently search our hearts for pride.)

But do not be deceived! Even a sincere follower of the God of Israel can confuse the two — just ask Judah about Tamar. One very important concept that will help us to grasp the difference between the two is to realize that when we are acting contrary to the Word of God, we ARE the harlot. It also may be helpful to research the term “harlot” in a concordance. Most of its references are used to refer to God’s wayward people. And much of the time, the people actually believed that they were righteous —everything was “okay” in their own eyes. We become the fools if we think it is any different for us today.

I believe this why our verse in Proverbs refers to the woman that “tears down” her house as a fool. She doesn’t realize what she is doing. A woman that tears down is actually a destroyer. Does this indicate who her master might be? It definitely reveals what “spirits” light her lamp. They are the seven abominations of Proverbs 6:16-19. If I’ve learned anything from studying the seven Spirits of God and the seven abominations, it is this: our hearts are desperately wicked. We are ALL capable of operating in the wicked lamp. (Pr. 6:16-19) Our “good intentions” can often just be a cover so that our flesh can get what it desires. But wisdom is still calling from every corner. She knows the Way to our freedom.

“Wisdom has built her house, She has hewn out her seven pillars.” (Pr. 9:1)

Wisdom’s seven pillars are the seven Spirits of God and the seven Holy Moedim (feasts). If you want to know what fuels your lamp, you must take an honest look at your own heart. This exercise must be an ongoing endeavor. The moment we think we’ve “arrived” or have it all figured out, is the moment pride (the first wicked spirit) has entered our hearts. Both the harlot and the righteous woman (wisdom) call to us daily. We must learn the difference between the two. One appeals to your desires, your lower nature. Her call is very pleasing and can be good. But like the tree of knowledge of good and evil — she cannot produce LIFE.

Keep the notion of the woman being a contronym (a word that can mean its own opposite) at the forefront of your mind. We will continue unpacking the duality of the woman throughout this series. For now, remember that as a woman you are either a builder or a destroyer. Men do not get to escape this duality, because both men and women are found within the woman, the wife, the harlot, the virgin, or the bride. At the end of our days, we will be revealed as righteous or wicked.

There is one other important point to grasp in this duality. It is not happenstance that God compares His people to a “woman”. Both men and women are meant to deal with the body like a mother deals with an infant. If tender mercies and nurturing the immature fails to shine through our Torah keeping, then we are not “builders”. How many young (new-to-Torah) in the faith have been “destroyed” by Torah terrorists? I suspect far too many. These “terrorists” may have a lot of “knowledge”, but they do not operate with the Holy Spirit of Da’at (sacrificial love). The Holy Spirit of Da’at is willing to die for the sheep like Moses and Yeshua. (Ex. 32:32; Rom. 5:8) The righteous or unrighteous stance of the people isn’t what mattered. They were willing to die for those even in their sin. The question is: are you?

How far are you willing to go? Will you leave the 99 sheep to rescue the one? Can you reserve judgment when necessary? Do you know the difference? There is not a black and white answer to these questions. God is love. Binah (the Spirit that builds the House) requires you to discern the difference between compromise and love. Our lower (nephesh/flesh) nature will choose judgment over mercy every time. It likes to point the finger. It secretly relishes in condemning others. It’s much easier to be a destroyer. But beloved, you are called to build! You can be LONG suffering and merciful without compromising — never let anyone tell you any different.

If you struggle with your past, bad circumstances, pain, contentment, depression, self-pity, or the like, my article  Repairer of the Breach will offer some realistic solutions to repair or rebuild what has been breached.

Key #1 You are either a builder or a destroyer of God’s House. 
Often, the difference is difficult to discern.

Women, the First to Receive the Torah?

Interestingly, in Jewish tradition and understanding, the women were the first to receive the Torah from Moses.[1] Their reasoning is two-fold. First, notice how the Torah words the following verse:

“Moses went up to God, and the LORD called to him from the mountain, saying, “Thus you shall say to the house of Jacob and tell the sons of Israel:” (Ex. 19:3)

woman_as_wisdomThe Sages explain that the phrase “house of Jacob” refers to the women; whereas, the “sons of Israel” refers to the men. Based on what we discovered in Part VIII, you should be able to discern with a Hebraic lens why they make this inference from the text. Women are associated with the HOUSE. But, why would the Torah reference the women before the men? Ah, that’s the other side of their reasoning and there are conflicting opinions as to “why” this is so. Here is an example from Ask Moses:

“G-d told Moses to relate the “general principles” of the Torah to the women, and its “exacting particulars” to the men. The woman relates to the Torah’s all-inclusive essence, while the man relates to the detail, specific law and particular applicationMoses went to the women first because the Torah’s revelation unfolds from the general to the particular, from the supra-spatial point of concept to the breadth and depth of the law.”

Pay very close attention to the bolded print from the above quote. The Sages believe that the women received the Torah first because there is a natural process to how people learn and grow. In Part VIII, we essentially deduced the same conclusion. Babies (physical and spiritual) require their mother’s “milk” before they can eat the “meat” at the Father’s table. This in no way diminishes the intellectual capacity of women or their ability to eat meat for themselves. But what it does imply is that women are endowed with the unique ability to ingest MEAT and then transform it into a substance (milk) that can give a baby the nourishment it needs to thrive.

This natural/physical reality is also true in the spiritual realm. The writer of the Book of Hebrews, Peter, and Paul all mention the “milk” of the Word in the Brit Chadashah (N.T.). They associate those that need milk with immature infants. What makes it obvious that they are spiritual babies? Look at these passages:

And I, brethren, could not speak to you as to spiritual men, but as to men of flesh, as to infants in Christ. I gave you milk to drink, not solid food; for you were not yet able to receive it. Indeed, even now you are not yet able, for you are still fleshly. For since there is jealousy and strife among you, are you not fleshly, and are you not walking like mere men? (1 Cor. 3:1-3 NASB)

For though by this time you ought to be teachers, you have need again for someone to teach you the elementary principles of the oracles of God, and you have come to need milk and not solid food. For everyone who partakes only of milk is not accustomed to the word of righteousness, for he is an infant. But solid food is for the mature, who because of practice have their senses trained to discern good and evil. Therefore leaving the elementary teaching about the Christ, let us press on to maturity, not laying again a foundation of repentance from dead works and of faith toward God, of instruction about washings and laying on of hands, and the resurrection of the dead and eternal judgment. (Heb. 5:12 – 6:2)

Since you have in obedience to the truth purified your souls for a sincere love of the brethren, fervently love one another from the heart, for you have been born again not of seed which is perishable but imperishable, that is, through the living and enduring word of God… Therefore, putting aside all malice and all deceit and hypocrisy and envy and all slander, like newborn babies, long for the pure milk of the word, so that by it you may grow in respect to salvation. (1 Pet. 1:22- 2:2)

Spiritual babies haven’t learned how to allow the Spirit to rule over their nephesh (flesh). In other words, their outlook, emotions, and desires are all ruled by their lower nature (the beast). As I’ve mentioned in other places, this part of our being isn’t evil in and of itself. However, like Cain, we must learn to rule over the lower nature or it will lead us to sin. Our beast nature is only concerned about self-preservation and survival. It will always put itself before others. It will live out life based on how it “feels”. The verses above mention things like jealousy, strife, slander, hypocrisy, malice, and deceit as the trademarks of a “spiritual baby”. One only engages in this type of behavior because it is selfish.

The above verses were written to encourage these babies to GROW, learn to OBEY, PRACTICE training their SENSES, and to seek after genuine love for the brethren. Once these precious ones learn (through practice) to overcome and tame the beast (their flesh), only then can they truly walk in the maturity of Da’at or sacrificial love. According to the Rabbis, women have a natural ability to help these “babies” mature. If the details, particulars, and depth of the Torah is placed in the hands of the immature, judgment will be levied without the tender mercies learned by receiving mother’s milk first. This brings destruction, not growth. Rabbi Yaakov Hillel, in Ascending Jacob’s Ladder, puts it this way:

“If you learn Torah, it will make you big. But in what it will make you big depends upon what you plant. If you plant seeds of good middot, Torah will make you a great tzaddik [righteous one]. If you don’t work on your middot, Torah will make you big — but you will be a big monster.” (Brackets and bolding are mine.)

The middot are character traits. By studying and practicing the attributes of God, one learns to become more like Him. Without this type of intentional living, a disciple will live life based on animal-like instincts. But, from the beginning, God has ordained that we rule over this side of our nature. The Jewish exercise of building godly character traits is called mussar. I wrote a little introduction to mussar here.

The whole point of practicing mussar is to gain the upper hand over your nephesh (flesh). Rabbi Hillel already knows what those returning to Torah are just starting to understand: an immature (flesh ruled) person that learns Torah will grow, but instead of growing in righteousness (salvation), only his monster (beast) will get bigger. This makes him a destroyer, not a builder. Mussar is practiced throughout one’s lifetime. As a human, your lower nature will always seek the upper hand. But, if you do well, shall you not be accepted? and if you do not well, sin lies at the door. And to you shall be his desire, and you shall rule over him. (Gen. 4:7)

Key #2 The Torah was first received and taught by the women, 
the House of Jacob.
Key #3 Learning Torah will make you big. 
Will you be a big tzaddik or a big monster?

Women, the First to Proclaim the Gospel?

It is important to note right here that my pointing out or alluding to women being the “first” (at anything) is in no way meant to disparage men or their role. God has painted a masterpiece with the two genders. Sadly though, we often miss the true beauty of His work because we constantly want to separate what He has meant to be ONE. (Unified)

Both men and women are revealed in “the woman” in the Bible. (Think: wife, bride, virgin.) For century after century women have been oppressed and silenced. If this is true in the natural, then it has also affected the spiritual realm. By living according to the actual design of the Creator instead of perpetuating the curse, women are elevated to their coequal status with men. In this process, men are edified and made whole in ways that we never imagined. The bottom line is that if women are bound, then men (as the other half) are also bound.

The Bible is full of stories and parables that hint at this “hidden” reality. The Holy Spirit is revealing these things in our day because the time is short. One little nugget that opens up this truth is to simply look at the gospels anew. This time, pay very close attention to the women.

ImageIt was the women who first proclaimed the good news of “He is Risen!” I reblogged a post by Jane Diffenderfer on this very topic called: Firstfruits and the Women Who First Preached the Good News.  I encourage you to read it.

Why does it matter that Yeshua entrusted women with the gospel first? Does it have any significance? After all, even the disciples didn’t “believe” the report of the women, so why should we? Are women unreliable witnesses? Are women prohibited from proclaiming the Good News? Did Yeshua make a mistake by giving this vital message to the women first?

We must answer these questions. Your tradition, upbringing, culture, and personal opinions about the proper role of women (and men) will be reflected back to you if you honestly seek the answers from the Word of God. You will find yourself either aligned with the Word or aligned with what you want the Word to say. And then, you have to answer one last question: What is it that I fear will happen if women are coequal with men?

I’ve witnessed men actually leave the room when a woman gets up to bring forth the Good News to the assembly. They really believe that it is sinful to listen to her. But isn’t that exactly what the disciples did with the report of the women from the tomb? By not listening to these women, they remained in unbelief UNTIL Messiah Himself appeared to them. One thing is certain: Yeshua charged the women first to proclaim the Good News! Carefully read His words and then consider the reaction of His disciples:

Now after He had risen early on the first day of the week, He first appeared to Mary Magdalene, from whom He had cast out seven demons. She went and reported to those who had been with Him, while they were mourning and weeping. When they heard that He was alive and had been seen by her, they refused to believe it. (Mark 16:9-11)

I believe that everything Yeshua did was intentional. He consistently challenged tradition and cultural norms. He wasn’t surprised that the women were the first to find the empty tomb, and He certainly didn’t make a mistake by entrusting them with the Gospel. The message He gave to the women was meant to reveal the hearts of His disciples. Notice that Mary Magdalene had had SEVEN demons cast from her. Could these have been the seven wicked abominations of Proverbs 6: 16-19? Regardless, she was a new creation through Messiah Yeshua, yet the disciples refused to believe her report. Here is the same account from Luke:

And as the women were terrified and bowed their faces to the ground, the men said to them, “Why do you seek the living One among the dead? “He is not here, but He has risen. Remember how He spoke to you while He was still in Galilee, saying that the Son of Man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again.” And they remembered His words, and returned from the tomb and reported all these things to the eleven and to all the rest. Now they were Mary Magdalene and Joanna and Mary the mother of James; also the other women with them were telling these things to the apostles. But these words appeared to them as nonsense, and they would not believe them. (Luke 24: 5-11)

imageI wonder how many treasures YHWH has entrusted to His daughters that men have considered nonsense over the centuries? History does repeat itself and there is nothing new under the sun. My hope is that by reconsidering these two accounts in the Gospels that it has pricked your heart to reevaluate the numerous other accounts in the Bible regarding women. The last thing we would desire is to not believe a report given by our Master because we deem the vessel of His choice unworthy.

It’s time to build and not destroy. We each have various materials, textiles, and tools to build up the House of Adonai. All are needed.

Key #4 The Gospel was entrusted to the women first, 
but the apostles failed to believe their report.

Stay tuned for Part X and the Repairer of the Breach. You can access past articles in this series here.

Recap of the four keys in this post:

Key #1 You are either a builder or a destroyer of God’s House. Often, the difference is difficult to discern.

Key #2 The Torah was first received and taught by the women, the House of Jacob.

Key #3 Learning Torah will make you big. Will you be a big tzaddik or a big monster?

Key #4 The Gospel was entrusted to the women first, but the apostles failed to believe their report.

[1] See this “Ask Moses” article for more information:,2217159/Ladies-First.html#articlepageinformation:

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Read Through The Bible With The Barking Fox

Al, of The Barking Fox, has designed something that I believe is perfect for not only the Shemitah year, but for many cycles to come.

For many years I’ve desired to read through the Bible in a year by following some of the common reading schedules. But, there is always a “problem” for me and my family. As followers of Yeshua and Torah (not to mention homeschooling which has its own Bible focuses), each plan lacks the foundational time we desire to devote to the weekly Torah cycle. Thus, we usually end up dropping the schedule to work through our own hodgepodge version. Enter my friend Al over at The Barking Fox…

His comprehensive reading plan will take you through the entire Bible in a year while enabling you to stay on the traditional Torah and Haftarah cycle. I’m super excited that he has made this so easy for me and you. (: As a homeschooling mother, I end up restructuring more things than I’d like to admit. It’s time consuming and tedious. Thanks again, Al, for making my life easier!

I hope you will join The Barking Fox and Grace in Torah this year and read through the Bible in a year. At the end of Sukkot next year, we will all have finished a complete reading of God’s awesome Word.

P. S. Be sure to check out other articles on his blog; they are full of grace and truth!

The Barking Fox

Bible ReadingAre the people of God really the people of God if they don’t pay attention to what God says?  How do they even know what He says?  That should be an easy question to answer.  It’s right here in the Bible:

Your word I have hidden in my heart, that I might not sin against You.  (Psalm 119:11 NKJV)

Here is a tool that can help those who want to find out what God says.  Fair warning, though:  It takes some discipline!  This is a Bible reading plan that goes through the entire Bible in one year, but in a slightly different way.  This plan is a combination of the Jewish and Christian approaches toward the Scriptures.

The Jewish approach is to read through the Torah (the books of Moses:  Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy) in weekly portions, combined with selections from the Haftorah, which are selected readings…

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The Flow of Love

The following model is a decidedly Greek one. Nevertheless, I have chosen this format because those of us raised and educated in Greek thought often have a hard time transitioning to a Hebraic mindset when studying the Scriptures. This is especially true when westerner’s think of God’s love, grace, and Spirit as being opposed to His commandments and Law. My hope is to show you that God’s Holy Law is in no way contrary to His love, mercy, or Spirit. In fact, the Law (Torah) properly applied is the epitome of His grace!

So then, the Law is holy, and the commandment is holy and righteous and good. (Rom. 7:12)

The flow chart in the figure below begins with LOVE.[1] It is love that is the greatest of all commandments and we know that God is love.[2]

And this is love, that we walk according to His commandments. This is the commandment, just as you have heard from the beginning, that you should walk in it. (2Jn. 1:6)

There are two branches that break off of the main heading of love. These two branches are what Yeshua called the greatest commandments.


On these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets. (Mat. 22:40)

If we look closely at the Ten Commandments,[3] we see that the two tablets express the two greatest commandments in more detail. The first five teach us how to love Adonai[4] and the second five teach us how to love our neighbor. Do we need to be taught how to love God and our neighbor? Apparently, God thinks that we do.

Sometimes we assume that “love” is fully understood by all people. But, love is not always a universal concept. For example, a degraded or unregenerate mind can easily misconstrue love with lust and commit heinous acts of rape, incest, or pedophilia. This type of twisting can even happen on less disastrous levels when we simply “assume” that someone will like something merely by the fact that we ourselves do. In other words, do unto others as you would have them do unto you —- unless you are a pervert or degenerate! All kidding aside, it is reasonable to ask: “How do we love?”

How do we love YHWH (the LORD) and how do we love our neighbor? The Ten Commandments answer these questions. But even these ten can leave some ambiguity when we try to obey them. This is what the remaining 603 commandments in the Torah (Law) explain for us. The Rabbis have long counted out 613 distinct commandments within the Torah. There are 365 positive (do’s) and 248 negative (do not’s) commandments.

What?! There are 613 laws? Who could possibly keep that many statutes?[5] The English idea of “Law” is often thought of as harsh and rigid. So much so that grace is usually contrasted with Law. But perhaps we should allow the Bible to define our perception of God’s Law. The Hebrew word Torah,[6] translated as Law, actually means “instructions.” These are the instructions that Adonai sovereignly and lovingly gave His people. The Torah was never meant to burden God’s people; it was meant to bless and prosper them (and us).[7]

Confusion abounds when we misunderstand the function of the Law/Torah. Adonai never intended for His instructions or law to be the means by which He saved the children of Israel or us. There is a great analogy used by James[8] that we can use to express this. When you look into the mirror (the Law), it shows you your blemishes. You wouldn’t take the mirror off the wall and try to wash your face with it, would you?[9] The function of the mirror is to simply show you where the dirt is; it can never clean you. But, you have a choice of whether to wash your face or not. James compares those that are hearers and not doers of the word to someone who looks into the mirror (the Torah) and then does nothing about the dirt on his face.

In other words, salvation was NEVER the function of God’s Torah. It simply explains to you what sin is and is not. You choose to walk in holiness by being obedient, or you choose to walk contrary. God’s desire is for us to “see” where we have missed the mark and then adjust our walk accordingly. Repentance is not just saying, “I’m sorry.” It also requires one to align their life with Adonai’s standards. Nevertheless, there have always been some that try to use the mirror to wash their face. Adonai provided the soap (the Lamb) that cleanses us at the very beginning.

And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world. (Rev. 13:8 KJV)

We should be rejoicing that our loving Heavenly Father cares enough about us that He gave us all the instructions we need to lead a blessed and holy life. But this gift can never save or wash us clean. So, if we find that we have animosity toward God’s instructions, perhaps we need to search our hearts for the root of this contempt; for it does not originate from the Holy Spirit. We should be able to agree with Paul and David:

Do we then nullify the Law through faith? May it never be! On the contrary, we establish the Law. (Rom. 3:31)

Your righteousness is an everlasting righteousness, And Your law (Torah) is truth. (Ps. 119:142)

 I long for Your salvation (Yeshua), O LORD, And Your law (Torah) is my delight. (Ps. 119:174)

Before we get to the flow chart, let’s establish a few more facts. Due to the nature of the commandments, no one person can keep every law. This is because some commandments deal particularly with men. If you are a woman, it is impossible to keep regulations that speak of night seminal emissions. Likewise, a man can never keep the commands relating to a woman’s menstrual flow. There are also many statutes that are directed to the Levitical priesthood. If you are not a Levite from the line of Aaron, many commandments simply aren’t applicable to you. Moreover, there are commandments that require a person to be living in the land of Israel with a functioning Temple in place for fulfillment. Believe it or not, these restrictions knock out a ton of the 613 mitzvot. Is the “yoke” feeling lighter?

Speaking of yokes, it is a very sad thing that we consider God’s Law to be an unbearable yoke. This must grieve our Father. I know it would grieve me if my son considered the rules of my house to be an “unbearable” yoke that only brought misery to his life. My house rules are outlined to protect my son because I love him. If only we could come to our Father as a little child and trust that He really does know what is best for us. And, that His desire is not to take all the fun out life, but to prosper and prolong our days.

For My yoke is easy and My burden is light.” (Mat. 11:30)

For this is the love of God, that we keep His commandments; and His commandments are not burdensome. (1Jn. 5:3)

So what is our real burden? What is a yoke that is “unbearable”? SIN! When we break or transgress God’s law, it brings terrible consequences into our lives. Moreover, any time we allow manmade laws and traditions to supersede the simplicity of the Word, we become yoked with other type of bondage. We see both of these “enemies” exposed and dealt with in the Brit Chadashah (N.T.). But, even God’s holy law can be used as weapon instead of a blessing if it is not applied properly. LOVE must be the motivation and the desire behind our obedience. Any time our motive is self-righteousness we have moved into the realm of sin.

This is also true when we are leading or teaching others about Adonai and His commandments. We can never demand obedience, for then the student’s motivation would be either to please us or their own fears. Yes, love is the greatest commandment of all.  Our flow chart begins like this:

Commandment chart

Now, let’s break our first branch (Love YHWH) down into the first five of the Ten Commandments.

1st Tablet (Love the LORD) Ex. 20:1-12

  1. Then God spoke all these words, saying, “I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery. (vs. 1-2)
  2. “You shall have no other gods before Me.”You shall not make for yourself an idol, or any likeness of what is in heaven above or on the earth beneath or in the water under the earth. “You shall not worship them or serve them; for I, the LORD your God, am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children, on the third and the fourth generations of those who hate Me, but showing lovingkindness to thousands, to those who love Me and keep My commandments. (vs. 3-6)
  3. “You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain, for the LORD will not leave him unpunished who takes His name in vain. (vs. 7)
  4. “Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. “Six days you shall labor and do all your work, but the seventh day is a sabbath of the LORD your God; in it you shall not do any work, you or your son or your daughter, your male or your female servant or your cattle or your sojourner who stays with you. “For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, the sea and all that is in them, and rested on the seventh day; therefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day and made it holy. (vs. 8-11)
  5. “Honor your father and your mother, that your days may be prolonged in the land which the LORD your God gives you. (vs. 12) [Please refer to footnote number 4 for why this applies to loving God])

2nd Tablet (Love your Neighbor) Ex. 20:13-17  

  1. “You shall not murder. (vs. 13)
  2. “You shall not commit adultery. (vs. 14)
  3. “You shall not steal. (vs. 15)
  4. “You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor. (vs. 16)
  5. “You shall not covet your neighbor’s house; you shall not covet your neighbor’s wife or his male servant or his female servant or his ox or his donkey or anything that belongs to your neighbor.” (vs. 17)

Each of these commandments instructs in one way or another about HOW one is to “love” the LORD or our their neighbor. If we continued our flow chart, the remaining 603 commandments would fall under one of these two primary categories or headlines. For the sake of time, I haven’t categorized these commandments. (Perhaps, another day!) But, I have copied and pasted the full list of the 613 commandments. They are divided between the positive (do’s) and negative (do not’s) mitzvot. As you read through them, answer for yourself whether the commandment has to do with loving Adonai or loving your neighbor. Also, consider whether or not the commandment can be kept today or whether it is applicable to you. Rebuke any spirit that provokes you to try to justify NOT being obedient. Prayerfully ask the Ruach HaKodesh (Holy Spirit) to convict you of sin committed in ignorance and ask for His guidance in becoming more obedient for the sake of love.

The conclusion, when all has been heard, is: fear God and keep His commandments, because this applies to every person. (Ecc. 12:13)

The Complete List of the 613 Mitzvot (Commandments)

The 248 Positive Mitzvot: “The Do’s”

Relationship to God

  • 1          To believe in God. Shemot (Exodus) 20:2
  • 2          To acknowledge the Unity of God. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 6:4
  • 3          To love God. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 6:5
  • 4          To fear God. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 6:13
  • 5          To serve God. Shemot (Exodus) 23:25; Devarim (Deuteronomy) 11:13; 13:4
  • 6          To cleave to God. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 10:20
  • 7          On taking an oath by God’s Name. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 10:20
  • 8          On walking in God’s ways. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 28:9
  • 9          On Sanctifying God’s Name. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:32


  • 10        Recite the Sh’ma each morning and evening. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 6:7
  • 11        Study and Teaching Torah. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 6:7
  • 12        Bind Tefillin on the head. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 6:8
  • 13        Bind Tefillin on the hand. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 6:8
  • 14        Make Tzitzit with thread of blue, garments corners. Bamidbar (Numbers) 15:38
  • 15        Affix a Mezuzah to doorposts and gates. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 6:9
  • 16        Assemble each 7th year to hear the Torah read. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 31:12
  • 17        A king must write a copy of Torah for himself. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 17:18
  • 18        Everyone should have a Torah scroll. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 31:19
  • 19        Praise God after eating, Grace after meals. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 8:10

Temple and the Priests

  • 20        On building a Sanctuary / (Tabernacle / Temple) for God. Shemot (Exodus) 25:8
  • 21        Respect the Sanctuary. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:30
  • 22        On guarding the Sanctuary. Bamidbar (Numbers) 18:4
  • 23        On Levitical services in the Tabernacle. Bamidbar (Numbers) 18:23
  • 24        On Cohanim (Priests) washing hands and feet before entering Temple. Shemot (Exodus) 30:19
  • 25        On kindling the Menorah by the Cohanim (Priests). Shemot (Exodus) 27:21
  • 26        On the Cohanim (Priests) blessing Israel. Bamidbar (Numbers) 6:23
  • 27        On the Showbread before the Ark. Shemot (Exodus) 25:30
  • 28        On Burning the Incense on the Golden Altar twice daily. Shemot (Exodus) 30:7
  • 29        On the perpetual fire on the Altar. Vayikra (Leviticus) 6:13
  • 30        On removing the ashes from the Altar. Vayikra (Leviticus) 6:10
  • 31        On removing unclean persons from the camp. Bamidbar (Numbers) 5:2
  • 32        On honoring the Cohanim (Priests). Vayikra (Leviticus) 21:8
  • 33        On the garments of the Cohanim (Priests). Shemot (Exodus) 28:2
  • 34        On Cohanim (Priests) bearing the Ark on their shoulders. Bamidbar (Numbers) 7:9
  • 35        On the holy anointing oil. Shemot (Exodus) 30:31
  • 36        On the Cohanim (Priests) ministering in rotation / watches. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:6-8
  • 37        On the Cohanim (Priests) being defiled for dead relatives. Vayikra (Leviticus) 21:2-3
  • 38        On that Cohen haGadol (High Priest) may only marry a virgin. Vayikra (Leviticus) 21:13


  • 39        On the twice Daily Burnt, tamid, offerings. Bamidbar (Numbers) 28:3
  • 40        On Cohen haGadol’s (High Priest) twice daily meal offering. Vayikra (Leviticus) 6:20
  • 41        On the Shabbat additional, musaf, offering. Bamidbar (Numbers) 28:9
  • 42        On the New Moon, Rosh Chodesh, additional offering. Bamidbar (Numbers) 28:11
  • 43        On Pesach (Passover) additional offering. Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:36
  • 44        On the second day of Pesach (Passover) meal offering of the Omer (Counting). Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:15
  • 45        On Shavuot (Pentecost) additional, musaf, offering. Bamidbar (Numbers) 28:26
  • 46        On the Two Loaves of bread Wave offering on Shavuot (Pentecost). Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:17
  • 47        On Rosh HaShannah (Head of Year) additional offering. Bamidbar (Numbers) 29:1-2
  • 48        On Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) additional offering. Bamidbar (Numbers) 29:7-8
  • 49        On the service of Yom Kippur, Avodah. Vayikra (Leviticus) 16
  • 50        On Sukkot, musaf, offerings. Bamidbar (Numbers) 29:13
  • 51        On the Shemini Atzeret additional offering. Bamidbar (Numbers) 29:36
  • 52        On the three annual Festival pilgrimages to the Temple. Shemot (Exodus) 23:14
  • 53        On appearing before YHVH during the Festivals. Shemot (Exodus) 34:23
  • 54        On rejoicing on the Festivals. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 16:14
  • 55        On the 14th of Nisan slaughtering the Pesach (Passover) lamb. Shemot (Exodus) 12:6
  • 56        On eating the roasted Pesach (Passover) lamb night of Nisan 15th. Shemot (Exodus) 12:8
  • 57        On slaughtering the Pesach (Passover) Sheini, Iyyar 14th, offering. Bamidbar (Numbers) 9:11
  • 58        On eating the Pesach (Passover) Sheini lamb with Matzah and Maror. Bamidbar (Numbers) 9:11
  • 59        Trumpets for Feast sacrifices brought and for tribulation. Bamidbar (Numbers) 10:9-10
  • 60        On minimum age of cattle to be offered. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:27
  • 61        On offering only unblemished sacrifices. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:21
  • 62        On bringing salt with every offering. Vayikra (Leviticus) 2:13
  • 63        On the Burnt-Offering. Vayikra (Leviticus) 1:2
  • 64        On the Sin-Offering. Vayikra (Leviticus) 6:25
  • 65        On the Guilt-Offering. Vayikra (Leviticus) 7:1
  • 66        On the Peace-Offering. Vayikra (Leviticus) 3:1
  • 67        On the Meal-Offering. Vayikra (Leviticus) 2:1
  • 68        On offerings for a Court (Sanhedrin) that has erred. Vayikra (Leviticus) 4:13
  • 69        Fixed Sin-Offering, by one unknowingly breaking a commandment. Vayikra (Leviticus) 4:27
  • 70        Suspensive Guilt-Offering if doubt of breaking a commandment. Vayikra (Leviticus) 5:17
  • 71        Unconditional Guilt-Offering, for stealing, etc. Vayikra (Leviticus) 5:15
  • 72        Offering higher or lower value, according to ones means. Vayikra (Leviticus) 5:11
  • 73        To confess one’s sins before God and repent from them. Bamidbar (Numbers) 5:6-7
  • 74        On offering brought by a zav (man with a discharge). Vayikra (Leviticus) 15:13
  • 75        Offering brought by a zavah (woman with a discharge). Vayikra (Leviticus) 15:28
  • 76        On offering brought by a woman after childbirth. Vayikra (Leviticus) 12:6
  • 77        On offering brought by a leper after being cleansed. Vayikra (Leviticus) 14:10
  • 78        On the Tithe of one’s cattle. Vayikra (Leviticus) 27:32
  • 79        Sacrificing the First-born of clean (permitted) cattle. Shemot (Exodus) 13:2
  • 80        On Redeeming the First-born of man, Pidyon ha-ben. Shemot (Exodus) 22:29
  • 81        On Redeeming the firstling of an ass, if not… Shemot (Exodus) 34:20
  • 82        …breaking the neck of the firstling of an ass. Shemot (Exodus) 13:13
  • 83        On bringing due offerings to Jerusalem without delay. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:5
  • 84        All offerings must be brought only to the Sanctuary. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:14
  • 85        On offerings due from outside Israel to the Sanctuary. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:26
  • 86        On Redeeming blemished sanctified animal offerings. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:15
  • 87        On the holiness of substituted animal offerings. Vayikra (Leviticus) 27:33
  • 88        On Cohanim (Priests) eating the remainder of the Meal Offerings. Vayikra (Leviticus) 6:9
  • 89        On Cohanim (Priests) eating the meat of Sin and Guilt Offerings. Shemot (Exodus) 29:33
  • 90        Burn Consecrated Offerings that’ve become tameh/unclean. Vayikra (Leviticus) 7:19
  • 91        Burn remnant of Consecrated Offerings not eaten in time. Vayikra (Leviticus) 7:17


  • 92        The Nazirite letting his hair grow during his separation. Bamidbar (Numbers) 6:5
  • 93        Nazirite completing vow shaves his head and brings sacrifice. Bamidbar (Numbers) 6:18
  • 94        On that a man must honor his oral vows and oaths. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:21
  • 95        On that a judge can annul vows, only according to Torah. Bamidbar (Numbers) 30:8

Ritual Purity

  • 96        Defilement by touching certain animal carcasses, and… Vayikra (Leviticus) 11:8
  • 97        …by touching carcasses of eight creeping creatures. Vayikra (Leviticus) 11:29
  • 98        Defilement of food and drink, if contacting unclean thing. Vayikra (Leviticus) 11:34
  • 99        On Tumah (unclean) of a menstruant woman. Vayikra (Leviticus) 15:19
  • 100      On Tumah (unclean) of a woman after childbirth. Vayikra (Leviticus) 12:2
  • 101      On Tumah (unclean) of a leper. Vayikra (Leviticus) 13:3
  • 102      On garments contaminated by leprosy. Vayikra (Leviticus) 13:51
  • 103      On a leprous house. Vayikra (Leviticus) 14:44
  • 104      On Tumah (unclean) of a zav (man with a running issue). Vayikra (Leviticus) 15:2
  • 105      On Tumah (unclean) of semen. Vayikra (Leviticus) 15:6
  • 106      Tumah (unclean) of a zavah (woman suffering from a running issue). Vayikra (Leviticus) 15:19
  • 107      On Tumah (unclean) of a human corpse. Bamidbar (Numbers) 19:14
  • 108      Law of the purification water of sprinkling, mei niddah. Bamidbar (Numbers) 19:13
  • 109      On immersing in a mikveh to become ritually clean. Vayikra (Leviticus) 15:16
  • 110      On the specified procedure of cleansing from leprosy. Vayikra (Leviticus) 14:2
  • 111      On that a leper must shave his head. Vayikra (Leviticus) 14:9
  • 112      On that the leper must be made easily distinguishable. Vayikra (Leviticus) 13:45
  • 113      On Ashes of the Red Heifer, used in ritual purification. Bamidbar (Numbers) 19:2

Donations to the Temple

  • 114      On the valuation for a person himself to the Temple. Vayikra (Leviticus) 27:2
  • 115      On the valuation for an unclean beast to the Temple. Vayikra (Leviticus) 27:11
  • 116      On the valuation of a house as a donation to the Temple. Vayikra (Leviticus) 27:14
  • 117      On the valuation of a field as a donation to the Temple. Vayikra (Leviticus) 27:16
  • 118      If benefit from Temple property, restitution plus 1/5th. Vayikra (Leviticus) 5:16
  • 119      On the fruits of the trees fourth year’s growth. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:24
  • 120      On leaving the corners (Peah) of fields for the poor. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:9
  • 121      On leaving gleanings of the field for the poor. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:9
  • 122      On leaving the forgotten sheaf for the poor. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 24:19
  • 123      On leaving the misformed grape clusters for the poor. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:10
  • 124      On leaving grape gleanings for the poor. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:10
  • 125      On separating and bringing First-fruits to the Sanctuary. Shemot (Exodus) 23:19
  • 126      To separate the great Heave-offering (terumah). Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:4
  • 127      To set aside the first tithe to the Levites. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 14:29
  • 128      To set aside the second tithe, eaten only in Jerusalem. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 14:22
  • 129      On Levites’ giving tenth of their tithe to the Cohanim (High Priests). Bamidbar (Numbers) 18:26
  • 130      To set aside the poor-man’s tithe in 3rd and 6th year. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 14:28
  • 131      A declaration made when separating the various tithes. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 26:13
  • 132      A declaration made bringing First-fruits to the Temple. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 26:2
  • 133      On the first portion of the Challah given to the Cohen (Priest). Bamidbar (Numbers) 15:20

The Sabbatical Year

  • 134      On ownerless produce of the Sabbatical year (shemittah). Shemot (Exodus) 23:11
  • 135      On resting the land on the Sabbatical year. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:4
  • 136      On sanctifying the Jubilee (50th) year. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:10
  • 137      Blow Shofar on Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) in the Jubilee and slaves freed. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:9
  • 138      Reversion of the land to ancestral owners in Jubilee year. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:25
  • 139      On the redemption of a house within a year of the sale. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:24
  • 140      Counting and announcing the years till the Jubilee year. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:8
  • 141      All debts are annulled in the Sabbatical year, but… Devarim (Deuteronomy) 15:3
  • 142      …one may exact a debt owed by a foreigner. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 15:3

Concerning Animals for Consumption

  • 143      The Cohen’s (Priest’s) due in the slaughter of every clean animal. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:3
  • 144      On the first of the fleece to be given to the Cohen (Priest). Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:4
  • 145      (Cherem vow) one devoted thing to God, other to Cohanim (Priest). Vayikra (Leviticus) 27:21
  • 146      Slaughtering animals, according to Torah, before eating. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:21
  • 147      Covering with earth the blood of slain fowl and beast. Vayikra (Leviticus) 17:13
  • 148      On setting free the parent bird when taking the nest. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:7
  • 149      Searching for prescribed signs in beasts, for eating. Vayikra (Leviticus) 11:2
  • 150      Searching for the prescribed signs in birds, for eating. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 14:11
  • 151      Searching for prescribed signs in locusts, for eating. Vayikra (Leviticus) 11:21
  • 152      Searching for the prescribed signs in fish, for eating. Vayikra (Leviticus) 11:9


  • 153      Sanhedrin to sanctify New Moon, and reckon years and seasons. Shemot (Exodus) 12:2
  • 154      On resting on Shabbat. Shemot (Exodus) 23:12 –
  • 155      On declaring Shabbat holy at its onset and termination. Shemot (Exodus) 20:8
  • 156      On removal of chametz (leaven), on (Nisan 14th) Pesach (Passover). Shemot (Exodus) 12:15
  • 157      Tell of Shemot (Exodus) from Egypt 1st night Pesach (Passover), (Nisan 15th). Shemot (Exodus) 13:8
  • 158      On eating Matzah the first night of Pesach (Passover), (Nisan 15th). Shemot (Exodus)12:18
  • 159      On resting on the first day of Pesach (Passover). Shemot (Exodus) 12:16
  • 160      On resting on the seventh day of Pesach (Passover). Shemot (Exodus) 12:16
  • 161      Count the Omer (Counting) 49 days from day of first sheaf, Nisan 16. Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:15
  • 162      On resting on Shavuot (Pentecost). Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:21
  • 163      On resting on Rosh HaShannah (Head of Year). Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:24
  • 164      On fasting on Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement). Vayikra (Leviticus) 16:29
  • 165      On resting on Yom Kippur. Vayikra (Leviticus) 16:29
  • 166      On resting on the first day of Sukkot. Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:35
  • 167      On resting on (the 8th day) Shemini Atzeret. Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:36
  • 168      On dwelling in a Sukkah (Booths) for seven days. Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:42
  • 169      On taking a Lulav (the four species) on Sukkot. Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:40
  • 170      On hearing the sound of the Shofar on Rosh HaShannah (Head of Year). Bamidbar (Numbers) 29:1


  • 171      On every male giving half a shekel annually to Temple. Shemot (Exodus) 30:12
  • 172      On heeding the Prophets. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:15
  • 173      On appointing a king. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 17:15
  • 174      On obeying the Great Court (Sanhedrin). Devarim (Deuteronomy) 17:11
  • 175      On in case of division, abiding by a majority decision. Shemot (Exodus) 23:2
  • 176      Appointing Judges and Officers of the Court in every town. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 16:18
  • 177      Treating litigants equally / impartially before the law. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:15
  • 178      Anyone aware of evidence must come to court to testify. Vayikra (Leviticus) 5:1
  • 179      The testimony of witnesses shall be examined thoroughly. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 13:14
  • 180      False witnesses punished, as they intended upon accused. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 19:19
  • 181      On Eglah Arufah, on the heifer when murderer unknown. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 21:4
  • 182      On establishing Six Cities of Refuge. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 19:3
  • 183      Give cities to Levites – who’ve no ancestral land share. Bamidbar (Numbers) 35:2
  • 184      Build fence on roof, remove potential hazards from home. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:8


  • 185      On destroying all idolatry and its appurtenances. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:2
  • 186      The law about a city that has become apostate / perverted. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 13:16
  • 187      On the law about destroying the seven Canaanite nations. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 20:17
  • 188      On the extinction of the seed of Amalek. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 25:19
  • 189      On remembering the evil deeds of Amalek to Israel. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 25:17


  • 190      Regulations for wars other than ones commanded in Torah. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 20:11
  • 191      Cohen for special duties in war. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 20:2
  • 192      Prepare place beyond the camp, so to keep sanitary and… Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:14
  • 193      …so include a digging tool among war implements. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:13


  • 194      On a robber to restore the stolen article to its owner. Vayikra (Leviticus) 6:4
  • 195      On to give charity to the poor. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 15:8
  • 196      On giving gifts to a Hebrew bondman upon his freedom. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 15:14
  • 197      On lending money to the poor without interest. Shemot (Exodus) 22:25
  • 198      On lending money to the foreigner with interest. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:20
  • 199      On restoring a pledge to its owner if he needs it. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 24:13
  • 200      On paying the worker his wages on time. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 24:15
  • 201      Employee is allowed to eat the produce he’s working in. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:24
  • 202      On helping unload when necessary a tired animal. Shemot (Exodus) 23:5
  • 203      On assisting a man loading his beast with its burden. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:4
  • 204      On that lost property must be returned to its owner. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:1
  • 205      On being required to reprove the sinner. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:17
  • 206      On love your neighbor as yourself. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:18
  • 207      On being commanded to love the convert / proselyte. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 10:19
  • 208      On the law of accurate weights and measures. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:36


  • 209      On honoring the old (and wise). Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:32
  • 210      On honoring parents. Shemot (Exodus) 20:12
  • 211      On fearing parents. Vayikra (Leviticus)19:3
  • 212      On to be fruitful and multiply. Bereshit (Genesis)1:28
  • 213      On the law of marriage. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 24:1
  • 214      On bridegroom devotes himself to his wife for one year. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 24:5
  • 215      On circumcising one’s son. Bereshit (Genesis)17:10
  • 216      If a man dies childless his brother marry widow, or… Devarim (Deuteronomy) 25:5
  • 217      …release her / the-widow Chalitzah. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 25:9
  • 218      A violator must marry the virgin / maiden he has violated. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:29
  • 219      The defamer of his bride is flogged and may never divorce. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:18
  • 220      On the seducer must be punished according to the law. Shemot (Exodus) 22:16
  • 221      Captive women treated according to special regulations. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 21:11
  • 222      The law of divorce, only be means of written document. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 24:1
  • 223      Suspected adulteress has to submit to the required test. Bamidbar (Numbers) 5:15


  • 224      On whipping transgressors of certain commandments. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 25:2
  • 225      On exile to city of refuge for unintentional homicide. Bamidbar (Numbers) 35:25
  • 226      On punishment of transgressors of certain commandments. Shemot (Exodus) 21:20
  • 227      On strangling transgressors of certain commandments. Shemot (Exodus) 21:16
  • 228      On burning transgressors of certain commandments. Vayikra (Leviticus) 20:14
  • 229      On stoning transgressors of certain commandments. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:24
  • 230      Hang after execution, violators of certain commandments. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 21:22
  • 231      On burial on the same day of execution. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 21:23


  • 232      On the special laws for treating the Hebrew bondman. Shemot (Exodus) 21:2
  • 233      Hebrew bondmaid married to her master or his son, or… Shemot (Exodus) 21:8, 9
  • 234      …allow the redemption to the Hebrew bondmaid. Shemot (Exodus) 21:9
  • 235      On the laws for treating an alien bondman. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:46


  • 236      On the penalty for a person inflicting injury. Shemot (Exodus) 21:19
  • 237      On the law of injuries caused by an animal. Shemot (Exodus) 21:28
  • 238      On the law of injuries caused by an pit. Shemot (Exodus) 21:33
  • 239      On the law of punishment of thieves. Shemot (Exodus) 22:1
  • 240      On the law of a judgement for damage caused by a beast. Shemot (Exodus) 22:5
  • 241      On the law of a judgement for damage caused by a fire. Shemot (Exodus) 22:6
  • 242      On the law of an unpaid guardian. Shemot (Exodus) 22:7
  • 243      On the law of a paid guardian. Shemot (Exodus) 22:11
  • 244      On the law of a borrower. Shemot (Exodus) 22:14
  • 245      On the law of buying and selling. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:14
  • 246      On the law of litigants. Shemot (Exodus) 22:9
  • 247      Save life of one pursued. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 25:1
  • 248      On the law of inheritance. Bamidbar (Numbers) 27:8

The 365 Negative Mitzvot: “The Don’ts”

Idolatry and Related Practices

  • 1          No other gods before me. Shemot (Exodus) 20:3
  • 2          Not to make graven images. Shemot (Exodus) 20:4
  • 3          Not to make an idol (even for others) to worship. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:4
  • 4          Not to make figures of human beings. Shemot (Exodus) 20:4
  • 5          Not to bow down to an idol. Shemot (Exodus) 20:5
  • 6          Not to serve idols. Shemot (Exodus) 20:5
  • 7          Not to hand over any children to Molech. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:21
  • 8          Not to seek after wizards. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:31
  • 9          Not to regard them that have familiar spirits. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:31
  • 10        Not to study idolatrous practices. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:4
  • 11        Not to erect an image which people assemble to honor. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 16:22
  • 12        No figured stones to bow down to. Vayikra (Leviticus) 26:1
  • 13        Not to plant trees near the altar. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 16:21
  • 14        Make no mention of other gods. Shemot (Exodus) 23:13
  • 15        Not to divert anyone to idolatry. Shemot (Exodus) 23:13
  • 16        Not to try to persuade a Jew to worship idols. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 13:12, 13
  • 17        Not to love someone who seeks to mislead you to idols. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 13:8
  • 18        Not to relax one’s aversion to the misleader to idols. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 13:9
  • 19        Not to save the life of a misleader to idols. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 13:9
  • 20        Not to plead for (defend) the misleader to idols. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 13:9
  • 21        Not to oppress evidence unfavorable to the misleader. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 13:9
  • 22        No benefit from ornaments which have adorned an idol. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 7:25
  • 23        Rebuild not a city destroyed as punishment for idolatry. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 13:16
  • 24        Not deriving benefit from property of an apostate city. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 13:17
  • 25        Do not use anything connected with idols or idolatry. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 7:26
  • 26        Not prophesying in the name of idols. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:20
  • 27        Not prophesying falsely in the Name of God. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:20
  • 28        Listen not to one who prophesies in the name of idols. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 13:3
  • 29        Not fearing or refraining from killing a false prophet. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:20
  • 30        Imitate not the ways nor practice customs of idolaters. Vayikra (Leviticus) 20:23
  • 31        Not practicing divination (Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:10). Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:26
  • 32        Not practicing soothsaying. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:10
  • 33        Not practicing enchanting. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:10
  • 34        Not practicing sorcery. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:10
  • 35        Not practicing the art of the charmer. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:11
  • 36        Not consulting a necromancer. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:10
  • 37        Not consulting a sorcerer. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:11
  • 38        Not to seek information from the dead, necromancy. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:11
  • 39        Women not to wear men’s clothes or adornments. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:5
  • 40        Men not wearing women’s clothes or adornments. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:5
  • 41        Not tattoo yourself, as is the manner of the idolaters. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:28
  • 42        Not wearing a mixture of wool and linen. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:11
  • 43        Not shaving the temples or sides of your head. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:27
  • 44        Not shaving the corners of your beard. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:27
  • 45        Not making cuttings in your flesh over your dead. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:28

Prohibitions Resulting from Historical Events

  • 46        Not returning to Egypt to dwell there permanently. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 17:16
  • 47        Not to follow one’s heart or eyes, straying to impurity. Bamidbar (Numbers) 15:39
  • 48        Not to make a pact with the Seven Canaanite Nations. Shemot (Exodus) 23:32
  • 49        Not to spare the life of the Seven Canaanite Nations. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 20:16
  • 50        Not to show mercy to idolaters. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 7:2
  • 51        No one serving false gods to settle in the Land of Israel. Shemot (Exodus) 23:33
  • 52        Not to intermarry with one serving false gods. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 7:3
  • 53        Not to enter the congregation, an Ammonite or Moabite. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:3
  • 54        Exclude not marrying a descendant of Esau if a proselyte. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:8
  • 55        Not to exclude marrying an Egyptian who is a proselyte. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:8
  • 56        Not permitted to make peace with Ammon and Moab nations. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:6
  • 57        Not destroying fruit trees, even in time of war. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 20:19
  • 58        Not fearing the enemy in time of war. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 7:21
  • 59        Blot out the remembrance of Amalek. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 25:19


  • 60        Not blaspheming the Holy Name of God. Vayikra (Leviticus) 24:16
  • 61        Not violating an oath by the Holy Name. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:12
  • 62        Not taking the Holy Name in vain. Shemot (Exodus) 20:7
  • 63        Not profaning the Holy Name of God. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:32
  • 64        Not tempting God’s promises and warnings. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 6:16
  • 65        Do not destroy houses of worship or holy books of HaShem. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:3,4
  • 66        Leave not body of executed criminal hanging overnight. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 21:23


  • 67        Be not lax in guarding the Sanctuary. Bamidbar (Numbers) 18:5
  • 68        High Priest enter Sanctuary only at prescribed times. Vayikra (Leviticus) 16:2
  • 69        Cohen (priest) with blemish come near to Altar. Vayikra (Leviticus) 21:23
  • 70        Cohen (priest) with a blemish not to minister in the Sanctuary. Vayikra (Leviticus) 21:17
  • 71        Cohen (priest) with temporary blemish minister not in Sanctuary. Vayikra (Leviticus) 21:18
  • 72        Levites and Cohanim not to interchange in their functions. Bamidbar (Numbers) 18:3
  • 73        Drunk persons may not enter Sanctuary or teach Torah. Vayikra (Leviticus) 10:9
  • 74        A non-Cohen (priest) not to minister in Sanctuary. Bamidbar (Numbers) 18:4
  • 75        A unclean Cohen (priest) not to minister in Sanctuary. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:2
  • 76        A defiled Cohen (priest), not to minister in Sanctuary. Vayikra (Leviticus) 21:6
  • 77        A leper not to enter any part of Temple. Bamidbar (Numbers) 5:2
  • 78        No unclean person may enter camp of Levites. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:11
  • 79        Build not an Altar of stones which were touched by iron. Shemot (Exodus) 20:25
  • 80        Not to have an ascent to the Altar by steps. Shemot (Exodus) 20:26
  • 81        Not to extinguish the Altar fire. Vayikra (Leviticus) 6:13
  • 82        Offer nothing, but specified incense, on Golden Altar. Shemot (Exodus) 30:9
  • 83        Not to make any oil the same as the Oil of Anointment. Shemot (Exodus) 30:32
  • 84        Anoint none with special oil except Cohen Gadol (High Priest) and King. Shemot (Exodus) 30:32
  • 85        Not to make incense same as burnt on Altar in Sanctuary. Shemot (Exodus) 30:37
  • 86        Not to remove the staves from their rings in the Ark. Shemot (Exodus) 25:15
  • 87        Not to remove the Breastplate from the Ephod. Shemot (Exodus) 28:28
  • 88        Make not any incision in Cohen haGadol’s (High Priest’s) upper garment. Shemot (Exodus) 28:32


  • 89        Offer not sacrifices outside Sanctuary (Temple) Court. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:13
  • 90        Slaughter not consecrated animals outside Temple Court. Vayikra (Leviticus) 17:3-4
  • 91        Dedicate not a blemished animal to be offered on Altar. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:20
  • 92        Not to slaughter a blemished animal as a korban (sacrifice). Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:22
  • 93        Not to dash the blood of a blemished beast on the Altar. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:24
  • 94        Not to burn the inner parts of blemished beast on Altar. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:22
  • 95        Not to sacrifice a beast with a temporary blemish. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 17:1
  • 96        Not to offer a blemished sacrifice of a gentile. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:25
  • 97        Not to cause a consecrated offering to become blemished. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:21
  • 98        Not to offer leaven or honey upon the Altar. Vayikra (Leviticus) 2:11
  • 99        Not to offer a sacrifice without salt. Vayikra (Leviticus) 2:13
  • 100      Offer not on Altar: “hire of harlot” or “price of dog”. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:18
  • 101      Not to slaughter an animal and its young on the same day. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:28
  • 102      Not to put olive oil on the sin meal-offering. Vayikra (Leviticus) 5:11
  • 103      Not to put frankincense on the sin meal-offering. Vayikra (Leviticus) 5:11
  • 104      Not to put olive oil on the jealousy offering. Bamidbar (Numbers) 5:15
  • 105      Not to put frankincense on the jealousy offering. Bamidbar (Numbers) 5:15
  • 106      Not to substitute sacrifices. Vayikra (Leviticus) 27:10
  • 107      Redeem not the firstborn of permitted (clean) animals. Bamidbar (Numbers) 18:17
  • 108      Not to change sacrifices from one category to the other. Vayikra (Leviticus) 27:33
  • 109      Not to sell the tithe of the herd of cattle. Vayikra (Leviticus) 27:33
  • 110      Not to sell a devoted field. Vayikra (Leviticus) 27:28
  • 111      Not to redeem a devoted (by the Cherem vow) field. Vayikra (Leviticus) 27:28
  • 112      Not to split head of bird slaughtered for Sin-offering. Vayikra (Leviticus) 5:8
  • 113      Not to do any work with a dedicated beast. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 15:19
  • 114      Not to shear a dedicated beast. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 15:19
  • 115      Slaughter not Pesach (Passover) lamb with chametz (leaven). Shemot (Exodus) 34:25
  • 116      Leave not sacrificial portions of Pesach (Passover) lamb overnight. Shemot (Exodus) 12:10
  • 117      Allow not meat of Pesach (Passover) lamb to remain till morning. Shemot (Exodus) 12:10
  • 118      No meat of Nisan 14th Festive Offering remain till day 3. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 16:4
  • 119      No meat of 2nd Pesach (Passover) lamb Offering remain till morning. Bamidbar (Numbers) 9:12
  • 120      No meat of Thanksgiving Offering to remain till morning. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:30
  • 121      Not to break any bones of Pesach (Passover) lamb offering. Shemot (Exodus) 12:46
  • 122      Not to break any bones of 2nd Pesach (Passover) lamb offering. Bamidbar (Numbers) 9:12
  • 123      Not to remove Pesach (Passover) offering from where it is eaten. Shemot (Exodus) 12:46
  • 124      Not to bake the residue of a meal offering with leaven Vayikra (Leviticus) 6:17
  • 125      Not to eat the Pesach (Passover) offering boiled or raw. Shemot (Exodus) 12:9
  • 126      Not to allow an alien resident to eat Pesach (Passover) offering. Shemot (Exodus) 12:45
  • 127      An uncircumcised person may not eat the Pesach (Passover) offering. Shemot (Exodus) 12:48
  • 128      Not to allow an stranger to eat the Pesach (Passover) offering. Shemot (Exodus) 12:43
  • 129      Tameh (ritually unclean) person may not eat holy things. Vayikra (Leviticus) 12:4
  • 130      Eat not meat of consecrated things that have become unclean. Vayikra (Leviticus) 7:19
  • 131      Not to eat sacrificial meat beyond the second day. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:6,7
  • 132      Eat not sacrificial meat on third day. Vayikra (Leviticus) 7:18
  • 133      A stranger or non-Cohen may not eat of holy thing. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:10
  • 134      A Cohen ‘s (Priest’s) sojourner or hired worker may not eat holy thing. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:10
  • 135      An uncircumcised person may not eat holy thing. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:10
  • 136      A Tameh (ritually unclean) Cohen may not eat terumah (holy things). Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:4
  • 137      A Bat-Cohen (priest’s daughter) if married to non-Cohen not to eat holy food. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:12
  • 138      Not to eat the Meal-offering of a Cohen (Priest). Vayikra (Leviticus) 6:16
  • 139      Eat not Sin-offering meat sacrificed within Sanctuary. Vayikra (Leviticus) 6:23
  • 140      Not to eat consecrated animals that have become blemished. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 14:3
  • 141      Eat not unredeemed 2nd corn tithe outside Jerusalem. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:17
  • 142      Consume not unredeemed 2nd wine tithe outside Jerusalem. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:17
  • 143      Consume not unredeemed 2nd oil tithe outside Jerusalem. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:17
  • 144      Eat not an unblemished firstling outside Jerusalem. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:17
  • 145      Eat not sin or guilt offerings outside Sanctuary court. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:17
  • 146      Not to eat the meat of the burnt offering at all. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:17
  • 147      Eat not lesser sacrifices before blood dashed on Altar. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:17
  • 148      Azar / non- Cohen is not to eat the most holy offerings. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:17
  • 149      A Cohen (Priest) not to eat First Fruits outside Temple courts. Shemot (Exodus) 29:33
  • 150      Not giving 2nd tithe while in state of impurity. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 26:14
  • 151      Not eating the 2nd tithe while in mourning. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 26:14
  • 152      Not giving the 2nd tithe for the dead. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 26:14
  • 153      Not eating untithed produce. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:15
  • 154      Not changing the order of separating the various tithes. Shemot (Exodus) 22:29
  • 155      Delay not payment of offerings, freewill or obligatory. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:21
  • 156      Go not to Temple on Passover, Pentecost and Tabernacles without offering. Shemot (Exodus) 23:15
  • 157      Not to break your word, even if without an oath. Bamidbar (Numbers) 30:2


  • 158      A Cohen (Priest) may not marry a harlot. Vayikra (Leviticus) 21:7
  • 159      A Cohen (Priest) marry not a woman profaned from the Priesthood. Vayikra (Leviticus) 21:7
  • 160      A Cohen (Priest) may not marry a divorcee. Vayikra (Leviticus) 21:7
  • 161      Cohen haGadol (high priest) may not marry a widow. Vayikra (Leviticus) 21:14
  • 162      Cohen haGadol (high priest) may not take a widow as a concubine. Vayikra (Leviticus) 21:15
  • 163      Cohen (Priest) may not enter the Sanctuary with uncovered head. Vayikra (Leviticus) 10:6
  • 164      Cohen (Priest) wearing rent garments may not enter Sanctuary. Vayikra (Leviticus) 10:6
  • 165      Cohanim (Priests) leave not Temple courtyard during the service. Vayikra (Leviticus) 10:7
  • 166      No Cohanim (Priests) must not be defiled for dead, except for his next of kin. Vayikra (Leviticus) 21:1
  • 167      Cohen haGadol (High Priest) may not be under one roof with dead body. Vayikra (Leviticus) 21:11
  • 168      Cohen haGadol (High Priest) must not be defiled for any dead person. Vayikra (Leviticus) 21:11
  • 169      Levites have not part in the division of Israel’s land. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:1
  • 170      Levites share not in the spoils of war. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:1
  • 171      Not to tear out hair for the dead. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 14:1

Dietary Laws

  • 172      Not to eat any unclean animal. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 14:7
  • 173      Not to eat any unclean fish. Vayikra (Leviticus) 11:11
  • 174      Not to eat any unclean fowl. Vayikra (Leviticus) 11:13
  • 175      Not to eat any creeping winged insect. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 14:19
  • 176      Not to eat anything which creeps on the earth. Vayikra (Leviticus) 11:41
  • 177      Not to eat creeping thing that is undefiled. Vayikra (Leviticus) 11:44
  • 178      Not to eat living creatures that goeth on belly. Vayikra (Leviticus) 11:42
  • 179      Not to eat any abominable creature. Vayikra (Leviticus) 11:43
  • 180      Not to eat any animal which died naturally, a nevelah. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 14:21
  • 181      Not to eat an animal which is torn or mauled, a treifah. Shemot (Exodus) 22:31
  • 182      Not to eat any limb taken from a living animal. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:23
  • 183      Not to eat the sinew of the thigh-vein, (gid ha-nasheh). Bereshit (Genesis) 32:32
  • 184      Not to eat blood. Vayikra (Leviticus) 7:26
  • 185      Not to eat certain types of fat of clean animal, chelev. Vayikra (Leviticus) 7:23
  • 186      Not to boil young male goat (meat) in its mother’s milk. Shemot (Exodus) 23:19
  • 187      Not to eat young male goat cooked in its mother’s milk. Shemot (Exodus) 34:26
  • 188      Not to eat the flesh of a condemned and to be stoned ox. Shemot (Exodus) 21:28
  • 189      Eat not bread made from grain of new crop, before bringing an offering. Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:14
  • 190      Eat not roasted grain of new crop, before bringing an offering. Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:14
  • 191      Eat not green ears of new crop, before bringing an offering. Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:14
  • 192      Not to eat of the fruit of trees till the forth year, orlah. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:23
  • 193      Eat not growth of mixed vineyard planting, kilai hakerem. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:9
  • 194      Not to use wine libations for idols, yayin nesach. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 32:38
  • 195      No eating or drinking to excess, gluttony and drunkenness. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 21:20
  • 196      Not to eat anything on Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement). Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:29
  • 197      Not to eat chametz, leaven, on Pesach (Passover). Shemot (Exodus) 13:3
  • 198      Not to eat an admixture of chametz / leaven on Pesach (Passover). Shemot (Exodus) 13:7
  • 199      Not to eat chametz / leaven, after noon of 14th Nisan. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 16:3
  • 200      No chametz / leaven may be seen in our homes during Pesach (Passover). Shemot (Exodus) 13:7
  • 201      Not to possess chametz / leaven, during Pesach (Passover). Shemot (Exodus) 12:19


  • 202      A Nazirite may not drink wine or any beverage from grapes. Bamidbar (Numbers) 6:3
  • 203      A Nazirite may not eat fresh grapes. Bamidbar (Numbers) 6:3
  • 204      A Nazirite may not eat dried grapes. Bamidbar (Numbers) 6:3
  • 205      A Nazirite may not eat grape seeds / kernels. Bamidbar (Numbers) 6:4
  • 206      A Nazirite may not eat grape peels / husks. Bamidbar (Numbers) 6:4
  • 207      Nazirite may not rend himself tameh (unclean) for the dead. Bamidbar (Numbers) 6:7
  • 208      Nazirite must not become tameh entering house with corpse. Vayikra (Leviticus) 21:11
  • 209      A Nazirite must not shave his hair. Bamidbar (Numbers) 6:5


  • 210      Reap not a whole field without leaving corners for poor. Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:22
  • 211      Not to gather ears of grain that fell during harvesting. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:9
  • 212      Not to gather the misformed clusters of grapes. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:10
  • 213      Not to gather single fallen grapes during the vintage. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:10
  • 214      Not to return for a forgotten sheaf. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 24:19
  • 215      Not to sow diverse kinds of seed in one field, kalayim. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:19
  • 216      Not to sow grain or vegetables in a vineyard. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:9
  • 217      Not to crossbreed animals of different species. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:19
  • 218      Work not with two different kinds of animals together. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:10
  • 219      Muzzle not animal working field to prevent from eating. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 25:4
  • 220      Not to cultivate the soil in the 7th year, shemittah. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:4
  • 221      Not to prune the trees in the 7th year. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:4
  • 222      Reap not self-grown plant in 7th year as ordinary year. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:5
  • 223      Gather not self-grown fruit in 7th year as ordinary year. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:5
  • 224      Not to till the earth or prune trees in Jubilee year. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:11
  • 225      Reap not after-growths of Jubilee year as ordinary year. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:11
  • 226      Not to gather fruit in Jubilee year as in ordinary year. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:11
  • 227      Sell not one’s Eretz Yisrael land holdings permanently. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:23
  • 228      Not to sell / change the open lands of the Levites. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:33
  • 229      Not to leave the Levites without support. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:19

Loans, Business, and the Treatment of Slaves

  • 230      Not to demand payment of debts after 7th year Shmitah. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 15:2
  • 231      Not to refuse loan to poor because 7th year Shmitah is near. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 15:9
  • 232      Not to deny charity to the poor. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 15:7
  • 233      Not sending a Hebrew bondman away empty-handed. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 15:13
  • 234      Not demanding payment from a debtor known unable to pay. Shemot (Exodus) 22:25
  • 235      Not lending to another person at interest. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:37
  • 236      Not borrowing from another person at interest. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:20
  • 237      Not participating in an agreement involving interest. Shemot (Exodus) 22:25
  • 238      Oppress not an employee by delaying paying his wages. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:13
  • 239      Not taking a pledge from a debtor by force. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 24:10
  • 240      Not keeping a poor man’s pledge when he needs it. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 24:12
  • 241      Not taking any pledge from a widow. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 24:17
  • 242      Not taking one’s business utensils in pledge. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 24:6
  • 243      Not abducting a person. Shemot (Exodus) 20:13
  • 244      Not stealing. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:11
  • 245      Not robbing. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:13
  • 246      Not fraudulently altering land boundaries / landmarker. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 19:14
  • 247      Not usurping our debts and do not defraud. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:13
  • 248      Not repudiating debts, denying receipt of loan / deposit. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:11
  • 249      Not to swear falsely regarding another man’s property. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:11
  • 250      Not wronging / deceiving one another in business. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:14
  • 251      Not wronging / misleading one another even verbally. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:17
  • 252      Not harming the stranger among you verbally. Shemot (Exodus) 22:21
  • 253      Not injuring the stranger among you in business / trade. Shemot (Exodus) 22:21
  • 254      Not handing over a slave who’s fled to Israel. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:15
  • 255      Take no advantage of a slave who’s fled to Israel. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:16
  • 256      Not afflicting the orphans and widows. Shemot (Exodus) 22:22
  • 257      Not employing a Hebrew bondman in degrading tasks. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:39
  • 258      Not selling a Hebrew bondman. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:42
  • 259      Not treating a Hebrew bondman cruelly. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:43
  • 260      Not allowing a heathen to mistreat a Hebrew bondman. Vayikra (Leviticus) 25:53
  • 261      Not selling a Hebrew maidservant. and if you marry her… Shemot (Exodus) 21:8
  • …withhold not: food, raiment, or conjugal rights. Shemot (Exodus) 21:10
  • 263      Not selling a captive woman. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 21:14
  • 264      Not treating a captive woman as a slave. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 21:14
  • 265      Not coveting another man’s possessions or property, etc. Shemot (Exodus) 20:17
  • 266      Covet not another’s possessions, even the desire forbidden. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 5:21
  • 267      A worker is not to cut down standing grain during work. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:25
  • 268      A hired laborer not to take more fruit than he can eat. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:24
  • 269      Not ignoring lost property to be returned to its owner. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:3
  • 270      Refuse not to help man or animal collapsing with burden. Shemot (Exodus) 23:5
  • 271      Not cheating or defrauding with measurements and weights. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:35
  • 272      Not to possess false or inaccurate weights and measures. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 25:13


  • 273      A Judge is not to commit unrighteousness. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:15
  • 274      A Judge is not to accept bribes / gifts from litigants. Shemot (Exodus) 23:8
  • 275      A Judge is not to favor (be partial to) a litigant. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:15
  • 276      Judge not avoid justice being in fear of wicked person. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 1:17
  • 277      A Judge not to decide in favor of poor man, out of pity. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:15
  • 278      A Judge is not to discriminate against the poor. Shemot (Exodus) 23:6
  • 279      Judge not to pity one who killed or caused loss of limb. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 19:13
  • 280      A Judge not perverting justice due strangers or orphans. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 24:17
  • 281      Judge not to hear one litigant in absence of the other. Shemot (Exodus) 23:1
  • 282      Court may not convict by majority of one in capital case. Shemot (Exodus) 23:2
  • 283      Judge accept not colleague’s opinion, unless sure right. Shemot (Exodus) 23:2
  • 284      Not appointing an unlearned judge ignorant of the Torah. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 1:17
  • 285      Not bearing false witness. Shemot (Exodus) 20:16
  • 286      A Judge is not to receive a wicked man’s testimony. Shemot (Exodus) 23:1
  • 287      A Judge receive not testimony from litigant’s relatives. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 24:16
  • 288      Not convicting on the testimony of a single witness. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 19:15
  • 289      Not murdering a human being. Shemot (Exodus) 20:13
  • 290      No conviction based on circumstantial evidence alone. Shemot (Exodus) 23:7
  • 291      A witness must not sit as a Judge in capital cases. Bamidbar (Numbers) 35:30
  • 292      Not killing a murderer without trial and conviction. Bamidbar (Numbers) 35:12
  • 293      Not to pity or spare the life of a pursuer. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 25:12
  • 294      Not punishing a person for a sin committed under duress. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:26
  • 295      Not accepting ransom from an unwitting murderer. Bamidbar (Numbers) 35:31
  • 296      Not accepting a ransom from a wilful murderer. Bamidbar (Numbers) 35:32
  • 297      Hesitate not to save life of another person in danger. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:16
  • 298      Not leaving obstacles on public or private domain. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:8
  • 299      Not misleading another by giving wrong advice. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:14
  • 300      Inflict not more than assigned number lashes to guilty. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 25:2, 3
  • 301      Not to tell tales. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:16
  • 302      Not to bear hatred in your heart toward your brethren. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:17
  • 303      Not to put one another to shame. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:17
  • 304      Not to take vengeance on another. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:18
  • 305      Not to bear a grudge. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:18
  • 306      Not to take entire bird’s nest, mother and her young. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:6
  • 307      Not to shave a leprous scall. Vayikra (Leviticus) 13:33
  • 308      Not to cut or cauterize (remove) other signs of leprosy. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 24:8
  • 309      Plow not a valley where slain body found, eglah arufah. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 21:
  • 310      Not permitting a witch / sorcerer to live. Shemot (Exodus) 22:18
  • 311      Take not bridegroom from home in first year of marriage. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 24:5
  • 312      Not to differ from or disobey the Cohanim and the Judge. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 17:11
  • 313      Not to add to the Mitzvot / commandments of Torah. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:32
  • 314      Not to detract from the Mitzvot / commandments of Torah. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:32
  • 315      Not to curse a judge. Shemot (Exodus) 22:28
  • 316      Not to curse a ruler. Shemot (Exodus) 22:28
  • 317      Not to curse any person. Vayikra (Leviticus) 19:14
  • 318      Not cursing parents. Shemot (Exodus) 21:17
  • 319      Not to strike parents. Shemot (Exodus) 21:15
  • 320      Not to work on Shabbat. Shemot (Exodus) 20:10
  • 321      Not to walk beyond permitted limits, eruv, on Shabbat. Shemot (Exodus) 16:29
  • 322      Not to inflict punishment on the Shabbat. Shemot (Exodus) 35:3
  • 323      Not to work on the first day of Pesach (Passover). Shemot (Exodus) 12:16
  • 324      Not to work on the seventh day of Pesach (Passover). Shemot (Exodus) 12:16
  • 325      Not to work on Shavuot (Pentecost). Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:21
  • 326      Not to work on Rosh HaShannah (Head of Year). Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:25
  • 327      Not to work on the first day of Sukkot (Booths). Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:35
  • 328      Work not 8th-day / Shemini-Atzeret, (after Hoshana Rabba). Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:36
  • 329      Not to work on Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement). Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:28

Incest and Other Forbidden Relationships

  • 330      No relations with one’s mother. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:7
  • 331      No relations with one’s father’s wife. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:8
  • 332      No relations with one’s sister. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:9
  • 333      No relations with step-sister. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:11
  • 334      No relations with one’s son’s daughter. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:10
  • 335      No relations with one’s daughter’s daughter. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:10
  • 336      No relations with one’s daughter. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:10
  • 337      No relations with a woman and her daughter. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:17
  • 338      No relations with a woman and her son’s daughter. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:17
  • 339      No relations with a woman and her daughter’s daughter. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:17
  • 340      No relations with one’s father’s sister. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:12
  • 341      No relations with one’s mother’s sister. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:13
  • 342      No relations with wife of father’s brother. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:14
  • 343      No relations with one’s son’s wife. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:15
  • 344      No relations with brother’s wife. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:16
  • 345      No relations with sister of wife, during wife’s life. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:18
  • 346      No relations with a menstruant. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:19
  • 347      No relations with another man’s wife. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:20
  • 348      Men may not lie with beasts. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:23
  • 349      Women may not lie with beasts. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:23
  • 350      A man may not lie carnally with another man. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:22
  • 351      A man may not lie carnally with his father. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:7
  • 352      A man may not lie carnally with his father’s brother. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:14
  • 353      Not to be intimate with a kinswoman. Vayikra (Leviticus) 18:6
  • 354      A mamzer may not have relations with a Jewess. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:2
  • 355      No relations (harlotry) with a woman outside marriage. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:17
  • 356      Remarry not your divorced wife after she has remarried. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 24:4
  • 357      Childless widow marry none except late husbands brother. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 25:5
  • 358      Divorce not wife, that he has to marry after raping her. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:29
  • 359      Divorce not wife, after falsely slandering her. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 22:19
  • 360      Man unable of procreation (eunuch) not to marry Jewess. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 23:1
  • 361      Not to castrate a man or beast. Vayikra (Leviticus) 22:24

The Monarchy

  • 362      Not appointing a king who is not of the seed of Israel. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 17:15
  • 363      A king not to accumulate an excess number of horses. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 17:16
  • 364      A king not taking many wives. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 17:17
  • 365      A king may not amass great personal wealth. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 17:17


Click here for another list of the 613 commandments.

[1] 1 Cor. 13:13

[2] 1 Jn. 4:16

[3] Literally in Hebrew: the Ten Words (Utterances or Sayings)

[4] Don’t let the 5th commandment (to honor your father and mother) throw you off. The Sages teach that this commandment is indeed teaching one how to love Adonai as one’s parents are “co-creators” with HaShem to produce you. Moreover, their authority in your life is a picture of the relationship you should have with Adonai. So, after considering the role that parents play in the life of a child, it becomes clear that the 5th commandment does in fact deal with loving the LORD. “Speak to all the congregation of the sons of Israel and say to them, ‘You shall be holy, for I the LORD your God am holy. ‘Every one of you shall reverence his mother and his father, and you shall keep My sabbaths; I am the LORD your God. (Lev. 19:2-3, see also Mark 7:9-13)

[5] There are those that count over a thousand “commandments” in the Brit Chadashah (New Testament)!

[6] Strong’s H8451; also be sure to look up the Hebrew root: H3384.

[7] “So keep and do them, for that is your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the peoples who will hear all these statutes and say, ‘Surely this great nation is a wise and understanding people.’ “For what great nation is there that has a god so near to it as is the LORD our God whenever we call on Him? “Or what great nation is there that has statutes and judgments as righteous as this whole law (Torah) which I am setting before you today?

(Dt. 4:6-8)

[8] For if anyone is a hearer of the word and not a doer, he is like a man who looks at his natural face in a mirror; for once he has looked at himself and gone away, he has immediately forgotten what kind of person he was. But one who looks intently at the perfect law, the law of liberty, and abides by it, not having become a forgetful hearer but an effectual doer, this man will be blessed in what he does. (James 1:23-25ff)

[9] I first heard this great analogy from one of the many gifted teachers at Lamb Fellowship. Sadly, I cannot remember which one, though I believe it was Travis Berry. Whoever it was, I thank you for presenting this in such a simple yet profound manner. It certainly has stuck with me. (:

Categories: Study Helps | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , | 4 Comments

The Light of the World Part II

The mystery of light still baffles modern scientists and theologians alike. We explored some of the reasons why in The Light of World Part I. In this post, I hope to take the scientific and spiritual dynamics a step further.

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

The electromagnetic spectrum is the term used by scientists to describe the entire range of natural light. This spectrum is broken into seven specific regions. Subdividing into smaller spectra is done mostly on the basis of how each region of electromagnetic waves interacts with matter. The diagram below depicts the electromagnetic spectrum’s seven regions.

light spectrum

As the graphic above shows, visible light only comprises about 1.5% of the entire light spectrum. Thus, we could say that we are “blind” to the vast majority of light. And the only reason we can see visible light is because God built special receivers right into our heads: our eyes.

If the natural world teaches us about the spiritual world, then we can deduce that (left to ourselves) we are “blinded” to at least 98.5% of spiritual light as well. Since light in the Bible is often synonymous with the Torah (Law), Word, and Yeshua (Jesus), is it any wonder that God compares us to a blind person when we reject His Law, Word, and/or Yeshua? Consider the following Scripture verses:

The Torah (law), the Word and Yeshua are LIGHT

Thy word is a lamp unto my feet and a light unto my path.  (Ps.119:105)

The entrance of thy words give light; it gives understanding to the simple. (Ps.119:130)

For the commandment is a lamp; and the law (Torah) is light; and reproofs of instruction are the way of life: (Pr. 6:23)

To the law (Torah) and to the testimony: if they speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them. (Is. 8:20)

“This is the judgment, that the Light has come into the world, and men loved the darkness rather than the Light, for their deeds were evil.  (20)  “For everyone who does evil hates the Light, and does not come to the Light for fear that his deeds will be exposed.  (21)  “But he who practices the truth comes to the Light, so that his deeds may be manifested as having been wrought in God.” (Jn. 3:19-21) 

“I have come as Light into the world, so that everyone who believes in Me will not remain in darkness. (Jn. 12:46)


What the above verses teach us is that God’s light is the only true light. Only His light can illuminate our darkness. Therefore, it is vital that we receive His light. Sadly, many of those that claim to follow Yeshua (Jesus) reject His Torah or law, and replace it with traditions of their own making. According to Isaiah (8:20), there is no light in this type of worldview.

Perhaps Israel (God’s people — including both Jews and Gentiles), truly are “blind in part” as Paul stated in Romans 11. Something is missing. But this is a lengthy discussion best treated with its own set of posts. For now, consider that God uses the Torah (law), the Word and Yeshua as equivalent expressions throughout Scripture. Each of these concepts is what YHWH judges to be His LIGHT.  And they are NOT mutually exclusive of one another no matter what modern theology claims.

It is no coincidence that the electromagnetic spectrum has SEVEN ranges or types of natural light. Spiritually speaking, this is a perfect picture of the SEVEN branched menorah — the epitome of God’s Spiritual light that radiates through and by our Messiah, Yeshua.

Visible Light

If all the different wavelengths of visible light fall on the eye at the same time, white light is seen. However, if that light is refracted, there are SEVEN (that number keeps popping up!) possible colors visible to the human eye as shown in the figure below.

light prism

ROY-G-BIV is the acronym that represents all of the colors in the visible spectrum of light. R (red) – O (orange) – Y (yellow) – G (green) – B (blue) – I (indigo) – V (violet). Not only are those the colors we can see as humans, but they are also in the right order. Red has the longest wavelength and violet has the shortest. In other words, red is the least energetic and violet is the most energetic of the visible spectrum[1]. We will look more closely at these colors when we explore the “rainbow” in a later post.

The prophet Ezekiel was blessed with a colorful vision of heaven. In the verses below, notice the many colored stones, the mention of fire (a form of light), and the reference to the rainbow. All these images are given to us by the prophet to describe the throne room and glory of YHWH.

Ezek. 1:26-28  And above the firmament that was over their heads was the likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone: and upon the likeness of the throne was the likeness as the appearance of a man above upon it.  (27)  And I saw as the color of amber, as the appearance of fire round about within it, from the appearance of his loins even upward, and from the appearance of his loins even downward, I saw as it were the appearance of fire, and it had brightness round about.  (28)  As the appearance of the rainbow that is in the cloud in the day of rain, so was the appearance of the brightness round about. This was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of YHWH. And when I saw it, I fell upon my face, and I heard a voice of one that spake.

In a like manner, the Beloved disciple John was also given a vision of the throne room. Notice the similarities and the reference to colors and light.

Rev 4:2-3  And immediately I was in the spirit: and, behold, a throne was set in heaven, and one sat on the throne.  (3)  And he that sat was to look upon like a jasper and a sardine stone: and there was a rainbow round about the throne, in sight like unto an emerald.

Ezekiel and John could see a rainbow (refracted light) surrounding the throne of YHWH, which means the one at its center, must be nothing less than pure white light! Also notice Ezekiel’s description of seeing amber. Amber has a GOLDEN look and sheen. Can you think of a symbol in scripture that is amber or golden in color and also displays light?

The Menorah

There is no better symbol in all of scripture to encompass the theme of “YHWH/Yeshua as Light” than the Menorah. The menorah was first described to us through Moses when YHWH gave him instructions for the furnishings of the holy place in the tabernacle. Menorah is the Hebrew word for a candlestick or lamp stand. This word literally denotes the means by which light comes or that which bears light. The menorah had a very specific design. Speaking of this holy piece of furniture, YHWH said:

Ex. 25:31-39  And thou shalt make a candlestick of pure gold: of beaten work shall the candlestick be made… (32)  And six branches shall come out of the sides of it; three branches of the candlestick out of the one side, and three branches of the candlestick out of the other side:  (33)  Three bowls made like unto almonds, with a knop and a flower in one branch; and three bowls made like almonds in the other branch, with a knop and a flower: so in the six branches that come out of the candlestick… (37)  And thou shalt make the seven lamps thereof: and they shall light the lamps thereof, that they may give light over against it…(39)  Of a talent of pure gold shall he make it, with all these vessels.

While other implements of the sanctuary were to be overlaid with gold, ONLY the menorah was to be made of ONE solid piece of PURE gold. In three passages of scripture, the menorah is called “the pure menorah”[2]. All the tabernacle furnishings were to be made precisely as YHWH showed Moses on the mountain[3], but He repeats the instruction only in reference to the menorah emphasizing its significance.

Ex. 25:40  “So see, and do according to the pattern which was shown to you on the mountain”

Let’s look at some facts about the menorah[4]:

  • It is fashioned out of ONE piece of hammered gold.
  • It’s designed to resemble and almond tree. (Notice its decorations)
  • It has ONE central shaft with 3 out workings on each side. (7 Branches)
  • Common Israelites, not the priests, provided the pure olive oil that kept the menorah continually burning. (Ex. 27:20-21)

One Piece of Hammered Gold

The menorah was the only piece of holy furniture that was made solely of pure gold. Even the Ark of the Covenant in the Most Holy Place was made of acacia wood overlaid in gold. The fact that it took one piece of gold measuring a talent to make the menorah speaks to the oneness of this set apart object. Since the Holy Place was completely covered, the menorah would be the only light source for the priests to perform their duties. When you look at or think of the golden menorah, your first thought should be the on its first description: One. Which is UNITY.

Dt. 6:4  “Hear, O Israel! The LORD is our God, the LORD is one!

Almond Tree

God’s instructions for the menorah included decorations from the almond tree. In Hebrew, the almond is called esh’kedia, which literally translated means “to be alert, watchful, and to be awake”. Interestingly, the almond tree is the first tree to bloom or “wake-up” in Israel in the early spring. Moreover, an almond is shaped like the human eye, thus in Hebrew it is named after the function of the eye. Jeremiah has a passage that illustrates these concepts beautifully.

Jer. 1:11-12  Moreover the word of YHWH came unto me, saying, Jeremiah, what seest thou? And I said, I see the branch of an almond tree [esh kedia]. (12) Then said YHWH unto me, “Thou hast well seen: for I am watching [sho’ked] over my word to perform it.”

In this passage, YHWH uses something very tangible (the almond tree) to picture something abstract (His watchful eyes). Zechariah confirms this image.

Zec. 4:2-6  And he said to me, “What do you see?” I said, “I see, and behold, a menorah all of gold, with a bowl on the top of it, and seven lamps on it, with seven lips on each of the lamps that are on the top of it.  (3)  And there are two olive trees by it, one on the right of the bowl and the other on its left.”  (4)  And I said to the angel who talked with me, “What are these, my lord?”  (5)  Then the angel who talked with me answered and said to me, “Do you not know what these are?” I said, “No, my lord.”  (6)  Then he said to me, “This is the word of YHWH to Zerubbabel: Not by might, nor by power, but by my Spirit, says YHWH of hosts.

The angel goes on to further explain the vision.

Zec. 4:10 For whoever has despised the day of small things shall rejoice, and shall see the plumb line in the hand of Zerubbabel. “These seven are the eyes of Yahweh, which range through the whole earth.”

The seven flames of the golden Menorah are like seven eyes proceeding from YHWH (the LORD), that scan to and fro throughout the earth. In both Jeremiah and Zechariah, the emphasis is on seeing and YHWH’s continual watchfulness over the fulfillment of His Word.

Ps. 121:4 Behold, He who keeps Israel Will neither slumber nor sleep.

This motif also suggests that YHWH is the Light (the menorah itself) and that the branches are truly His eyes. These are the seven spirits that John describes in Revelation[5]. In nature, it is through the one pure white channel of visible light refracting into six branches that we are able to see glorious color; and so it is through the one main shaft of the menorah branching into six other flames that we see the glory of our Holy God. Perhaps this why Isaiah says of the BRANCH (Messiah):

Is. 11:1-2  There shall come forth a shoot from the stump of Jesse, and a BRANCH from his roots shall bear fruit.  (2)  And the Spirit of YHWH shall rest upon him, the Spirit of wisdom and understanding, the Spirit of counsel and might, the Spirit of knowledge and the fear of YHWH.

The 7 Branches and 7 Spirits of YHWH

Like the Menorah’s seven branches, there are seven Spirits of God. The fullness of the Spirit of YHWH is represented in the main shaft of the golden menorah. All the other 6 branches are rooted and spring forth from this single shaft: wisdom, understanding, counsel, power, knowledge and reverence (fear). Each of these manifestations of God’s Spirit operates as creative forces or agents in creation, restoration and renewal from Genesis to Revelation.

As I’ve mentioned in several other places on this blog, Dr. Hollisa Alewine’s The Creation Gospel explores these spirits in detail. If I could recommend one thematic study or biblical paradigm for you to learn, The Creation Gospel would be at the top of the list every time. This study helps you to build understanding by showing you how the smaller pictures found in the Scriptures fits into the greater picture. For now, consider that the 7 Spirits of God are like the 7 tongues of fire that illuminate the golden menorah.

In the following diagram, the electromagnetic spectrum is transposed with a likeness of the tabernacle menorah. Notice the visible spectrum’s 7 colors coming forth from the main stem of “white” light. Remember the heavenly throne room pictured by Ezekiel and John? What better symbolism could have been given to these men to illustrate the majesty of the God of LIGHT? He truly covers Himself with light as a garment!

  Ps. 104:2  Who coverest thyself with light as with a garment: who stretchest out the heavens like a curtain.

 menorah and light


  • The electromagnetic spectrum depicts 7 forms of light. Of these 7, we can only see 1 tiny sliver equaling 1.5% of the spectrum.
  • Visible white light refracts into 7 seven colors or wavelengths that increase in intensity.
  • YHWH uses a 7 branched golden menorah to symbolize His Light.
  • Imagery in Scripture equates YHWH’s Light with the Torah (Law), His Spirit, Messiah, His Word, His Eyes, His Power, etc.

Do you think it is a coincidence that “science” describes natural light with 7 “manifestations” long after YHWH established this fact in Scripture with the menorah?

More to come on the Rainbow and YHWH’s Throne, The Menorah, the Tree of Life, Mt. Moriah and Resurrection. Click here for Part III.

[1] Creation Gospel students will find this truth rather fascinating because the “spring” side of the menorah deals more with families and individuals while the “fall” side deals with a nation or the nations. There is a direct increase in intensity as the spring feasts of YHWH progress into the fall festivals. This mimics increase in intensity of the colors energy wavelengths as they progress on the spectrum.

[2] Ex. 31:8, 39:37, Lev. 24:4

[3] Ex. 25:9

[4] Valerie Moody has an excellent workbook on the menorah called: Secrets of the Menorah. Even seasoned Hebraic Roots followers will find some treasures in its pages. Although I didn’t see this particular book at her website, you can contact her about possibly obtaining a copy.

[5] Rev. 1:4

Categories: Biblical Symbols, Musings | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 6 Comments

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